天涯部落

小圈子,大声音!呼朋引伴网聚部落!

创建新部落?

双阳区中医医院咨询华龙卫生

楼主:好医信息 时间:2019年10月20日 01:04:31 点击:0 回复:0
脱水模式给他打赏只看楼主阅读设置
The Four Great Inventions(4)四大发明(4)Before printing was invented, people had to rely on handwriting to reproduce a book.印刷术发明之前,人们必须用手抄来复制书籍,It was very slow and errors easily occurred.这种方法很慢,很容易出错。Wood-block printing first appeared in the early Tang Dynasty.唐朝初期,首次出现了木版印刷。It was developed from the use of seals and stone engraving.这种印刷术是从印章和石刻发展而来的。Words engraved on stones could last very long, and later, in about the 4th century, the method of rubbing a piece of paper on an engraved stone coverd with ink was used to maked copies.刻在石头上的字可以保留很久,后来,大约在4世纪,人们把一张纸铺在刷有油墨的刻字石板上来印刷。This gave workers the idea of engraving word on a wood-block and print them with the quick development of the economy and culture in the Tang Dynasty, books and other publications like calendars were needed by the public, and this demand promoted wood-block printing.一些印刷工人由此想到,可将字刻在木板上来印刷。随着唐朝经济文化的迅速发展,人们需要书籍和日历等印刷品,这种需求促进了木版印刷术的发展。According to records in certain books, block printing was very common in the late Tang Dynasty.据书籍记载,木版印刷在晚唐时十分普及。During the Song Dynasty, the technique of block printing was very advanced.宋朝时期,木版印刷术十分先进。Books were beautifully printed.书本印刷得很精美。Even today the books printed at that time are valuable and treasured by libraries and book collectors.直至今日,当时所印刷的书仍极有价值,是图书馆和书籍收藏家的珍藏。Block printing was not very convenient.木版印刷并不很方便。Every two pages of a book had to be engraved on a wood block, and a big book would require many blocks.每印两页就要雕刻一块木板,一部大书需要很多木板。Besides, there had to be large places for storing the blocks.除此之外,还需要很大空间来储藏木板。To overcome these shortcomings, Bi Sheng invented the movable type during the years between 1041 and 1048.为了克这些缺点,1041-1048年,毕昇发明了活字印刷。One word was carved on one piece of clay, which was hardened with fire.一个小泥块上刻-个字,经过火烤变硬,Then clay charaters were set on an iron plate according to the text of a book.然后根据书籍文字将这些泥块汉字排列在一块铁板上。Then ink was applied to them and sheets of paper sp over them,and the printing was done.然后刷上油墨,铺上纸张,就可以印刷了。Bi Sheng#39;s invention made printing faster and easier than before.毕昇的发明使印刷比以前更快更简单。Later, movable type of metal and wood was made and widely used.后来,人们又制成了金属活字和木活字,并广泛应用。One county magistrate of the Yuan Dynasty had over 30, 000 wood characters carved, with which he printed a book he had written.元朝的一个地方官刻了3万多个木活字,用来印刷他自己写的书。It was a book of more than 60, 000 words, and he finished printing 600 copies less than a month.这本书有六万多字,他一个月内就印了600册。The technique of printing was gradually known to other Asian countries and Europe.印刷术逐渐传入亚洲其他国家和欧洲。It goes without saying that the printing invented by the Chinese has great influence on the advance of civilization.印刷术对文明进步的巨大影响是不言而喻的。 /201508/394017China#39;s Xiaomi has become the world#39;s fourth smartphone maker to design its own processor, revealing its ;Pinecone; chip yesterday aimed at breaking its reliance on foreign providers such as Qualcomm.中国的小米(Xiaomi)已成为全球第四家自己设计处理器的智能手机制造商。昨日,该公司推出了其松果(Pinecone)芯片,力求打破对高通(Qualcomm)等国外供应商的依赖。The handset maker is leading a wave of Chinese tech groups that are trying to follow Apple, Samsung and Huawei by creating their own internal intellectual property, rather than relying on external sources.这家手机制造商正引领着一波中国科技集团追赶苹果(Apple)、三星(Samsung)和华为(Huawei)的浪潮,创建自主知识产权,而不是依赖外部资源。;The ability to create its own chip sets is the pinnacle of achievement for any smartphone company. For Xiaomi, the move is an essential next step in our development,; said Lei Jun, chief executive, at the launch.小米首席执行官雷军在发布会上表示:;芯片是手机科技的制高点,小米要成为伟大的公司,必须要掌握核心技术。;Zhang Ziming of Analysys, a tech consultancy, said: ;These Chinese firms want to break the monopoly on chip technology by foreign companies and take part more in upstream competition.;科技咨询公司易观国际(Analysys)的Zhang Ziming表示:;这些中国企业想要打破外国公司对芯片技术的垄断,更多地参与到上游竞争中去。;Like most other smartphone makers, Xiaomi had previously relied on Qualcomm to supply chips. But the US group#39;s global dominance has led to complaints over how it charges smartphone companies to use its designs.像其他大多数智能手机制造商一样,小米以前一直依靠高通提供芯片。但这家美国集团的全球主导地位,使外界对其收费让智能手机公司使用其设计的方式发出抱怨。In December, the company was fined 4m by South Korea for abusing its market position and charging excessive fees. It is now facing two lawsuits over licensing fees, one from US regulators, as well as a bn case involving Apple .去年12月,韩国政府以滥用市场地位和收费过高之由对高通罚款8.54亿美元。目前,高通正面临两起因专利使用费而起的诉讼案--其中一起来自美国监管机构,而另一起跟苹果有关,涉案金额为10亿美元。;Designing chips in-house means that Chinese companies will suffer less from supply-chain disruptions. Xiaomi has previously had to delay the launch of its flagship phone because of problems with Qualcomm#39;s chip set,; said Ding Jie, analyst at tech research group Canalys.;自主设计芯片意味着中国企业受到供应链中断的冲击将会更小。此前,由于高通芯片组出了一些问题,小米曾不得不推迟其旗舰手机的发布,;易观国际的分析师Ding Jie表示。Xiaomi#39;s chip ambitions date to October 2014, when it set up a subsidiary, Beijing Pinecone Electronics.小米开发芯片的抱负可以追溯到2014年10月,当时小米成立了一家名为;北京松果电子有限公司;(Beijing Pinecone Electronics)的子公司。China-based companies#39; share of chip designs in the global market roughly doubled to 11 per cent in the four years to 2015, while US-based companies have more than 60 per cent, according to Christopher Thomas of McKinsey.麦肯锡(McKinsey)的克里斯托弗o托马斯(Christopher Thomas)表示,在截至2015年的4年里,中国企业在全球芯片设计市场的份额达到11%,大约提高了一倍,而美国企业的市场份额超过60%。 /201703/495471The 11,700-year-old Holocene epoch is over. We#39;re now living in the Anthropocene epoch.长达11700年的全新世结束啦。我们如今正生活在“人类世”纪元。You don’t need to be paying much attention to the world around you to know that humans are having a massive influence on the planet, but our influence is now on the way to being officially recognised in geologic terms.无需劳神费力,我们都能感受到人类对地球产生的巨大影响。如今,地质学界打算用地质术语来确认这些影响。The 11,700-year-old geological Holocene epoch has ended, scientists say, and we’re now living in the Anthropocene: an era defined by humanity’s influence on the world around us.科学家表示,长达11700年的全新世已结束,我们现在正生活在“人类世”:即人类活动对地球施加影响的时代。In fact, unless you’re over the age of 66, you’ve always been living in it. A 35-strong team of international researchers from the Working Group on the Anthropocene voted 30-3 (two were absent) in favour of the epoch shift, and the starting date is 1950.事实上,66岁以下的人自出生起就生活在这个纪元了。一由35位国际顶尖研究者组成的“人类世”工作小组开展了纪元更变与否的投票,投票结果以30比3(有两位研究人员缺席)的压倒性优势宣布地质纪元进入“人类世”,并将开始时间确定为1950年。The date isn’t random: it matches when the first nuclear tests created a new stratum in the planet’s surface.这个日期可不是随便定的:它与首批核试验对地质表面造成影响的时间相符。Actually, it won’t necessarily be nuclear tests that ended the Holocene. Humanity’s impact on the planet is so great that we’re left “spoiled for choice” in terms of which particular signal to choose.实际上,核试验并非结束全新世的唯一必要条件。人类活动对地球的影响是如此深刻,可供选择的因素简直多到让人“眼花缭乱”,很难定夺到底哪一因素起了决定性作用。Plastic pollution, soot from power plants, concrete and even domestic chicken bones were considered possible contenders.塑料污染,发电厂煤烟,钢筋混泥土,甚至是家养鸡的骨头都被列入可能的影响因素。“The radionuclides are probably the sharpest – they really come on with a bang,” said the Working Group’s chair Jan Zalasiewicz, of the University of Leicester. “But we are spoiled for choice. There are so many signals.”工作组主席、莱斯特大学的简#8226;扎拉斯维奇表示:“放射性核素大概是这其中最厉害的一个因素—— 放射性核素真是伴随着‘砰’声来临,但是可供选择的因素太多了,许多因素都对地质产生了巨大影响。”Now that the vote has been done, we’ll see a few years of site sampling to figure out the best Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA) to date the start of the Anthropocene, which will then be presented to the International Commission on Stratigraphy.纪元变更的投票结束后,工作组在未来几年会利用现场勘测数据计算出最佳的全球标准低层年龄(GSSA),并确定“人类世”的开始日期,届时会把研究结果呈递国际地层委员会。It will then need ratification from the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences.随后还需要国际地质科学联合会的执行委员会正式认可研究结果。So it’s not official yet, but Zalasiewicz believes the team has a “pretty good case” to present.所以现在官方其实还未正式承认人类世的开始,但扎拉斯维奇相信他的团队递交的案例非常棒。“The significance of the Anthropocene is that it sets a different trajectory for the Earth system, of which we of course are part,” he explained.他解释说:“‘人类世’的意义在于,它让地球体系步入了一个与众不同的轨道,在这个新纪元里,人类也参与其中。”“If our recommendation is accepted, the Anthropocene will have started just a little before I was born. We have lived most of our lives in something called the Anthropocene and are just realising the scale and permanence of the change.”“如果我们的提议通过审核,‘人类世’在我出生前不久就开始了。我们大半辈子都生活在‘人类世’中,而且刚意识到地质纪元变更的规模和持久性。”In other words, geologically at least, there will be no denying the influence mankind has had on the planet. And it’s a hard one to put a positive spin upon, no matter how you frame it.换句话来说,至少从地理的角度看,我们将无法否认人类对地球造成的影响。而且无论我们如何定义都很难将这个影响扭转成正面影响。 /201609/466794

China launched its first x-ray telescope Thursday morning, a significant step in the country’s race to develop a space program that can rival that of the US or Russia.周四早上,中国发射了首个X射线太空望远镜。在中国发展可与美俄匹敌的太空计划的征程中,此举是迈出了重要一步。The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) took off from China’s Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, the country’s first satellite launch site, located in Inner Mongolia via a domestically-developed Long March-4B rocket, writes Emily Feng in Beijing.这一“硬X射线调制望远镜”(Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope,简称HXMT)由一枚在国内研制的长征四号乙(Long March-4B)运载火箭从酒泉卫星发射中心发射升空。酒泉卫星发射中心位于内蒙古,是中国第一个卫星发射场地。Once in orbit, the telescope will be used to observe high-energy entities like black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts in order to understand more about their energy sources.一旦进入轨道,该望远镜将被用于观测诸如黑洞、脉冲星和伽马射线暴等高能实体,以更好地理解它们的能量来源。Work on the telescope began in 2000 as a joint collaboration between China’s Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Tsinghua University in Beijing.2000年,作为中国科技部(Ministry of Science and Technology)、中科院(CAS)和清华大学(Tsinghua University)的合作项目,围绕该望远镜的研制工作在北京启动。China has poured enormous resources into developing its ambitious space program, which has sought to emulate many of the achievements of its American and Russian counterparts such as putting a man on the moon. In April, China successfully launched its first cargo spacecraft, the Tianzhou-1, to support its fledgling space lab.中国在发展其雄心勃勃的空间计划方面投入了大量资源。这一空间计划试图赶超美国和俄罗斯同类计划的许多成就——比如把人类送上月球。今年4月,中国成功发射了首个货运飞船天舟一号(Tianzhou-1),以持其刚刚建成的太空实验室。 /201706/514709

  • 伊通满族自治县人民医院地址
  • 公主岭妇女儿童医院妇科专家大夫网上媒体
  • 长春做人流的大医院新华热点
  • 吉林省长春市第四人民医院门诊怎么样
  • 吉大医院做无痛人流手术费多少康卫生
  • 长春市第三医院的qq号时空社区吉林长春市中医院口碑
  • 康泰对话长春二道区治疗尿道炎多少钱
  • 京东健康长春省妇幼保健院治疗盆腔炎多少钱QQ助手
  • 长春妇科体检中心
  • 长春二院宫颈糜烂多少钱365活动
  • 辽源处女膜修复哪家医院最好的ask分类吉林省长春第三人民医院治疗效果
  • 长春市中心医院在线咨询
  • 预约爱问长春白求恩医科大学一院输卵管再通术多少钱
  • 吉林市第三人民医院的QQ是多少
  • 飞度云报九台市第三人民医院输卵管再通术多少钱百度健康
  • 百度热点长春做无痛人流去哪里好
  • 武警吉林省总队医院四维彩超多少钱咨询在线长春医院哪家妇科人流做的好
  • 乐视生活长春去医院做b超多少钱69共享
  • 长春什么女性医院好当当社区
  • 吉大一院的权威医生
  • 长春市儿童医院挂号
  • 飞度云口碑吉林长春妇幼医院妇科挂号
  • 医网吉林长春市妇幼医院支持刷信用卡吗
  • 吉大一院医院飞度指南
  • 长春医院做人流那个好
  • 长春市妇幼医院门诊的开门时间
  • 人流在长春哪家医院好
  • 长春哪里打胎便宜咨询新闻
  • 美丽乐园农安县中医医院客服咨询
  • 吉林省长春市三院收费
  • 相关阅读
  • 瞒天过海!集体耕地上建厂房!村民:相关部门集体哑火(三)
  • 暮影战神武灵攻略大全
  • 唐嫣赵丽颖吴昕林允儿李易峰和谁最有感(图)
  • 酒类电商双罢斗
  • 南京查处违规补缴社保证明份购房证明被注销
  • 内蒙古自治区政协原副主席赵黎平一审被判处死刑
  • 近日李念与刚斩获年北京青年电影节影帝的巩峥出现在街边
  • 徐娇穿白袜撑伞古典韵味十足邻家有女初长成
  • 单机斗地主下载:首存优惠
  • 小学生作业本开口说话曝光盗伐林木团伙
  • 相关推荐

    发表回复

    请遵守天涯社区公约言论规则,不得违反国家法律法规