杭州第五人民医院主页放心分享

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 杭州第五人民医院主页88养生
It’s pretty frustrating to follow the press coverage of Uber rape case in India on both sides of the world. What is a terrible tragedy — the details are awful and stomach churning — has played out in the press along three very predictable directions.在一位使用Uber打车务的印度司机强奸女乘客之后,东西方世界的媒体报道读起来都令人沮丧。多惨的一桩悲剧啊,案件的细节令人不忍卒读。媒体的解读也基本上是沿着三个非常容易预期的导向来进行的。Meme #1 — Uber is a company that likes to play loose with the rules and this is yet another example (mostly tech press in the U.S.)导向1:Uber是一家喜欢把规则当游戏的公司,这桩悲剧只是又一个例子(大多数美国的科技媒体)。Meme #2 — India is a country which has a problem with women’s safety (both press here and in India)导向2:印度是一个存在女性安全问题的国家(大多数美国和印度媒体)。Meme #3 — This is another example of why “foreign” companies can’t be trusted in India (from Delhi government, various Indian influencers)导向3:这个例子再次说明为什么“外国”公司在印度得不到信任(新德里政府、在印度有影响力的人士)。All of these are loose caricatures playing to existing biases and it’s frustrating because it ignores the underlying realities of these parts of the world and what could have been done to prevent this.所有这些观点都是在迎合已有的偏见,是非常不严谨的漫画手法。由于它忽略了这些地区的一些基本事实,和人们本可以采取哪些手段来预防这种悲剧,这真的令人非常沮丧。First, some history. India has had a string of similar tragic incidents for many years. When I was at Microsoft Hyderabad in 2005, we started having security guards accompany women home late at night after a string of incidents where women in tech companies were assaulted by their shuttle drivers. As I was writing this post, I found more incidents as recent as 2013. This has been happening for a long time now and India has been grappling with some hard social/cultural questions on why it has been unable to stop this. This is why a lot of us tell women traveling to India to be much more aware of their surroundings — the social calculus you employ when you do something as trivial as jumping into a cab or asking a stranger for a favor isn’t the same in every part of the world.首先要普及一些历史知识。多年来,印度已经发生了一连串类似的悲剧事件。2005年,我还在微软海德拉巴分公司(Microsoft Hyderabad)工作,由于当时接连发生科技公司女性员工被通勤班车司机性侵的事件,我们开始派保安护送下班晚的女性员工回家。就在我写这篇文章的时候,我发现就在不久前的2013年,也发生了很多类似事件。在印度,这类事件早已有之,印度为什么不能制止类似悲剧的发生,也与一些深刻的社会和文化问题有关。这就是为什么我们许多人都会警告去印度旅行的妇女一定要注意周围安全。坐进出租车或请陌生人帮忙这样的小事,可能会导致跟世界其他地方不一样的后果。The idea of Uber doing background checks and “filtering out” this driver with an arrest record is laughable for anyone who has dealt with government records in India. First, there is no reliable way to run a check on someone in most parts of the world and second, even if they did, a small bribe in the right place will fix most records.只要你曾经跟印度政府部门打过交道,你就会知道,质疑Uber为什么没有做好背景调查,从而“过滤掉”这样一个有犯罪前科的司机,是一个多么可笑的想法。首先,在全球大多数地区,并没有可靠的方法彻查某人的历史记录。其次,即便他们有这种方法,一笔小小的贿赂就能把大多数记录改过来。A side anecdote on how such records work. Most of my school friends didn’t have to go to the Indian equivalent of the DMV to get a license when they hit the right age — they just got a “friend” to get it for them for around . I remember being grumpy with my dad when he made me actually take the test. Not because my dad had some moral high ground but more because he didn’t want to spend the money on a bribe (note — that’s my dad in a nutshell for you). India is trying to fix this and anti-corruption has really captured the public’s imagination in the last few years but it’s a long road. Paying off a government official is still very much the status quo (as I find out every time I need something from them).说一个关于这些记录的故事。我的大多数同学在到了合法驾车年龄之后,并不会去印度的机动车辆管理部门申领驾照——他们会去找一个“熟人”花大约10美元弄一张。我记得当年我父亲逼我参加考试的时候,我甚至还发了脾气。我父亲倒不是有多高的道德水平,只不过他不愿意花贿赂的钱。印度政府也试图改变这种风气,近几年印度的反腐行动也引发了公众的不少想象,但这个国家仍然有很长的路要走。花钱贿赂政府官员仍然是一件非常平常的事(每次我去政府机关办事时都会发现这一点)。A reasonable person may ask — shouldn’t Uber have covered their bases anyway and asked the police? In a twist that is probably going to embarrass the Delhi cops, it turns out that Uber actually did get a police “character certificate” for the driver. But as I said above, no one really takes this seriously and Uber shouldn’t have either (more on this later).自然有人会问,Uber难道不应该调查自己的人,并且问问警察吗?这个问题可能会让德里警方感到尴尬,事实上Uber还真有一张警方为那个司机开具的“无犯罪记录”。但就像我上文说的那样,没人真把它当回事,Uber本来也不应该把它当回事。(稍后再进一步谈论这个问题)The Delhi government banning Uber as “unsafe” smells of a knee-jerk PR reaction against a company perceived to be “foreign.” Delhi has thousands of taxi drivers, cab companies and private transport vehicles — no one bothers asking for any sort of real background check for anyone driving these things. I have friends who own cab companies — their “driver check” is asking the driver whether he has a license. And even if everyone suddenly had great checks, let’s not forget that a lot of the recent assault cases in India were first-time offenders. This is just the way business is done in other parts of the world and people generally accept this as the status-quo and guard against it.德里政府以“不安全”为由封掉Uber,透出一丝针对“外国”公司近乎本能的公关反应。德里的出租车司机、出租车公司和私人运营车辆成千上万,几乎没有人要求对任何驾驶这些车辆的人做任何严肃的背景调查。我有朋友就是开出租车公司的,他们的“驾驶员调查”就是询问司机有没有驾照。如果哪家公司真的做了很好的背景调查,我们也不要忘了,印度最近发生的很多性侵案的嫌疑人其实都是初犯者。在世界其他一些地方,生意就是这样做的,人们也基本上接受了这种现状,并对此保持警惕。Uber with its use of technology is way safer than any other cab company or any generic cab driver who hustles you at the airport. I would ask anyone in India or visiting there to trust it (and other startups like OlaCab that use tech to power transport) way more than some cab driver off the street or some company which has three beat-up cars and a phone number in the yellow pages.凭借它所用的技术,比起其他任何出租车公司、或者挤在机场拉客抢客的出租车司机,Uber其实要安全得多。对于任何一个在印度居住和旅游的人,我会请他们相信Uber(以及其它利用科技促进交通的初创公司,比如OlaCab等),而不是街上随便一个出租车司机,或是那些只有三辆老爷车,而且只在黄页本上有一个电话的出租车公司。What really happened here is a tragedy due to India’s inherent social dynamics and problems with sexual assault as well as it’s inability to have a efficient ID system. *That* is why a young woman was harmed and that’s what we should be focusing the spotlight of mainstream attention on.事实上,这出悲剧之所以会发生,根源是印度固有的社会因素导致的性侵问题,以及印度没有能够建立一个高效的身份系统。这才是这名年轻女性受害的原因,这也是社会主流应该关注的焦点。However, there are still several questions we here need to answer.不过我们还是需要回答几个问题。For us in the tech world — How do we scale services that we take for granted when the social/cultural foundations don’t exist in other nations or there are other social dynamics at play? Do we say “Customers need this service even if we can’t guarantee what we can in the first world?” Or do we take a more nuanced approach (and what does that even mean)? I don’t know.对科技界来说,当有些社会和文化基础在某些国家不存在,或者这些国家存在其它社会问题时,我们又该怎样扩展我们认为是理所当然的务?我们是说“顾客需要这项务,即便我们不能保我们在第一世界国家能做到的事,在这里也能做到”?还是我们应该采取一种更微妙的方法(这到底意味着什么)?我不知道。For Uber — They must be feeling under siege now in a situation where they did more than any Indian cab company (and way, way more in working with law enforcement promptly). Props to them but they could/should have done more. Anyone who has spent any amount of time in India would know that background checks just don’t work and a certificate from the cops is just paperwork. How do you actually protect your riders in these parts of the world by going above and beyond what law enforcement can do? Someone suggested that Uber adopt a “more Indian way” of background checking by asking a few neighbors of each driver — as silly as it sounds, a crazy, unscaleable, localized approach like this might yield way better results.Uber现在肯定觉得自己身陷重围,哪怕他们做得比任何一家印度出租车公司都多(也更为迅速地配合执法部门方面)。这一点值得鼓励,但是他们本可以,也本应该做得更多。任何在印度待过一段时间的人都知道,背景调查根本不管用,警方开的无犯罪明不过是浪费纸张。那么在这个地区,你如何在执法部门的能力范围之外保护乘客的安全?有些人建议Uber可以采取“更具印度特色”的背景调查方式,比如询问每个司机的几个邻居——虽然这个点子听起来似乎愚蠢,但像这样貌似疯狂、不容易大规模推广的“土办法”很可能会带来更好的结果。If you can’t actually have effective background checks in less developed parts of the world, how do you tell your riders that before they step into a car? Culturally, how do you react to this by actually looking into doing more than just set up a bunch of meetings with the Delhi home ministry/ police department which establishes a process that looks great on paper? How do you build this concern into your company DNA? It’s way easier to get big numbers to go up (riders, trips, passengers, cities) than protect against the rare, catastrophic incident. I don’t know but I hope Uber uses the same ingenuity it has shown in developing their core service in tackling these questions.如果你在欠发达国家无法进行有效的背景调查,那么在乘客踏进出租车之前,你应该告诉他们什么呢?从文化角度上,除了和新德里的内政及警务部门开一堆会议,建立一套纸上谈兵的流程之外,你还得怎样应对?你如何把这种对安全的关注植入企业的DNA?让大数字(司机、行程、乘客、城市数量等)涨上去,要比预防这种罕见的灾难事故简单得多。我也不知道这些问题的,但是我希望Uber能发扬它在开发核心务时展现出的智慧,来解决这些棘手的问题。The real media tragedy here is the burial of the core story. A young woman was viciously assaulted and still managed to show incredible bravery in the seconds (taking a photo, recording the number) and hours afterward. Society failed her.真正的媒体悲剧在于,他们埋藏了这个故事的核心:尽管惨遭施暴,这位年轻女子依然在随后的几秒钟和几小时内展现出非凡的勇气(拍照、记下车牌号)。但是社会令她失望了。(财富中文网)Sriram Krishnan currently works on mobile monetization products for Facebook, and previously worked on cloud solutions for both Yahoo and Microsoft.本文作者Sriram Krishnan目前为Facebook开发移动货币化产品,此前他曾为雅虎和微软提供云解决方案。 /201412/348278

KATMANDU, Nepal —Even for Lakpa Rita, a revered Nepalese mountaineer who has reached the summit of Mount Everest 17 times, the roaring wall of boulders, rocks, ice and debris that pulverized much of the mountain’s base camp over the weekend signified a malign new twist in the peak’s destructive powers.尼泊尔加德满都——上周末席卷而来的巨砾、岩石、冰块及碎片在很大程度上摧毁了珠穆朗玛峰大本营。就算是对于17次登上珠峰峰顶的受人尊敬的尼泊尔登山者拉科帕·里塔(Lakpa Rita)来说,这也意味着这座山峰展现了一种新的可怕的破坏力量。“Nothing like this has happened before at Everest base camp,” Mr. Rita said by telephone Monday from the camp in eastern Nepal, in the aftermath of the earthquake that set off the avalanche and geological convulsions there. At least 18 people died in the area of the camp, which is 18,000 feet above sea level. “This is a huge, huge avalanche,” he said.地震发生后,里塔周一在尼泊尔东部的这座营地通过电话表示,“珠峰大本营以前从未遇到这种情况。”此次地震引发了那里的雪崩和地质震动。营地位于海拔1.8万英尺(约合5500米)的地方。在它所在的地区,至少有18人死亡。“这是一场非常大,非常大的雪崩,”他说。The search for victims’ bodies around the camp, where mountaineers gather before trying to reach Everest’s summit, is likely to be long and difficult.在营地周围搜寻遇难者遗体很可能是一项漫长且艰巨的任务。在攀登珠峰峰顶之前,登山者会在这座营地汇聚。Rescue efforts stalled on Monday because of bad weather, after 20 stranded climbers had been evacuated and 11 bodies had been retrieved, Jhankanath Dhakal, the chief district officer of Solukhumbu District, which includes Nepal’s part of Everest, said in a telephone interview. That was after 60 people were evacuated from Everest on Sunday, he said.索卢坤布的地区长官简卡纳斯·达卡尔(Jhankanath Dhakal)接受电话采访时表示,周一,在撤离20名受困登山者并找到11具遗体之后,由于天气糟糕,救援工作受阻。珠峰位于尼泊尔境内的部分属于他管辖的这一地区。他说,周日有60人从珠峰撤离。For many tourists and adventurers, visiting Everest — even at the relatively low base camp — fulfills an intensely personal, and expensive, quest to test extremes. But for many ethnic Sherpas employed as local guides, who often take immense pride in their high-altitude skills, the most immediate motivation is a good income.对于很多游客和探险人士来说,珠峰之行——即便是在海拔较低的大本营——意味着完成一项探索极限的追求,极其个人化,而且费用高昂。然而,对于很多担任当地向导的夏尔巴人来说,最直接的动力就是高收入。他们往往为自己的高海拔技能而感到非常自豪。Last year, an avalanche killed at least 13 Sherpa guides on Mount Everest, and left three others missing, likely dead. How many Sherpas were among the fatalities at base camp this time was unclear, but Mr. Dhakal, the district official, said the 11 bodies retrieved on Monday included seven Nepalis. Yet even the two successive seasons of tragedy appeared unlikely to deter Sherpa men from taking jobs as paid guides and load-bearers on mountain expeditions.去年,珠峰发生的一次雪崩导致至少13名夏尔巴人向导死亡,另有3人失踪,很可能也已丧生。目前尚不清楚这一次有多少夏尔巴人在大本营遇难,但地区长官达卡尔表示,周一找到的11具遗体中有7个为尼泊尔人。不过,连续两个登山季发生的悲剧似乎不大可能使夏尔巴人打消通过担任探险向导和挑山工来赚钱的念头。In Nepal, where the average income is about 0 a year, Sherpas can make ,000 to ,000 in a season on Mount Everest, as well as bonuses if they reach the summit.在尼泊尔,年人均收入为700美元(约合4300元人民币),而夏尔巴人每个登山季可以在珠峰赚到3000至5000美元,如果到达峰顶,还能获得额外的奖励。“They still do it, especially for the money,” said Jangba Shankar, an employee of a Himalayan mountain guide company who was at the Katmandu Medical College hospital, helping to care for a guide who had been flown down from the Everest base camp with head and neck injuries.一家喜马拉雅山向导公司的员工贾巴·尚卡尔(Jangba Shankar)表示,“他们仍然在这么做,尤其是为了钱。”尚卡尔接受采访时正在加德满都医学院(Katmandu Medical College)的附属医院帮助照看一名头部和颈部受伤的向导。此人被直升机从珠峰大本营运送下山。“Some people are not happy because they lost their jobs because of the avalanche,” said Mr. Shankar, referring to the disaster last year. “Some people worry the earthquake will scare away people.”“有些人因为雪崩而失去了工作,感到不高兴,”尚卡尔谈到去年发生的灾难事件时表示。“还有些人担心这次的地震会把人吓跑。”Even hardened climbers admitted to being terrified by the wave of destruction.就连铁杆登山迷都承认,地震的强大破坏力让他们非常害怕。“I heard a really big thump and then I knew, O.K., the avalanche is coming,” Mariusz Malkowski, a 42-year-old Polish-American engineer and an experienced climber, said on Monday after finding his way out of base camp and eventually to New Delhi. But he said he was not prepared for what he saw: a wave of snow and ice, accompanied by a tremendous gust of air. “Imagine a tsunami,” he said.“我听到了一声巨响,然后我意识到,好吧,雪崩来了,”42岁的波兰裔美国工程师、经验丰富的登山者马里乌什·马尔科夫斯基(Mariusz Malkowski)周一在找到撤离大本营的途径并最终抵达新德里后表示。但是他说,自己当时并没有为后来见到的景象做好准备:一波又一波的冰雪,伴随着一股强大的气流。“想象一下海啸的场景,”他说。“Mountains and glaciers shook all around us,” Sean Wisedale, a South African climber and expedition leader, recounted on his blog. “A massive ice slab sheared and thundered into Base Camp. It lifted rocks and boulders ahead of it, slamming into hundreds of tents in the center of the camp and spilling over onto the Khumbu glacier on the other side.”“我们周围的山体和冰川都在震动,”南非登山者、探险队队长肖恩·怀斯达勒(Sean Wisedale)在他的客上写道。“一片巨大的冰块断裂,轰隆隆地砸到了大本营里。它掀起前面的岩石和巨砾,砸入大本营中心的数百顶帐篷,还溅落到了另一侧的昆布冰川。”Members of his team dived into their tents, and then emerged to a different world. “Base Camp was the site of post Armageddon,” he wrote.他的团队成员躲进帐篷,再出来的时候见到的是另一个世界。“大本营所在地就是世界末日过后,”他写道。There seems little chance, however, that successive disasters will seriously dull the luster of Mount Everest among visitors. Some foreign trekkers who had left Everest after the earthquake, or had their plans to visit stymied by the disaster, said in interviews in Katmandu that they hoped to return to the mountain. Others said they had seen enough.不过,接连发生的灾难似乎不大可能严重影响珠峰对游客的吸引力。在震后离开珠峰或者因为这场灾难而使登山计划受阻的一些外国徒步者在加德满都接受采访时说,他们希望能回到山上。其他一些人则表示已经不必再去。“Emotionally, I felt like this trip was so much bigger than the actual physical journey,” Rob Besecker, who lives in Chicago, said in an interview. He has muscular dystrophy and heart problems, and said he had trekked to the Everest base camp, and other famous or forbidding parts of the world, to show people that illness should not overshadow their lives. He had aly left the base camp when the earthquake struck.“从感情意义来说,我觉得这次旅行比实际上的身体之旅的意义要大很多,”住在芝加哥的罗伯·贝塞克(Rob Besecker)在采访中说。他患有肌肉萎缩症,心脏也有毛病。他表示自己曾徒步抵达珠峰大本营和世界上其他一些著名景点或难以接近的地方,为的是向世人表明,生活不应该笼罩在疾病的阴影之下。地震发生时,他已经离开了大本营。“I felt there were so many eyes on me that you just got to do it,” Mr. Besecker said. “So there was a physical battle, and an emotional battle.”“我感觉有很多双眼睛盯着我,必须要这样做,”贝塞克说。“所以这既是一场身体上的战斗,也是一场情感上的战斗。”When memories of this year’s trauma subside, mountain enthusiasts will return to Everest with the same zeal as before, according to Jiban Ghimire, the managing director of Shangri-La Nepal Trek, a company in Katmandu that provides support to mountaineering teams.位于加德满都的香格里拉尼泊尔徒步公司(Shangri-La Nepal Trek)为登山队提供持。公司执行董事吉班·吉米雷(Jiban Ghimire)表示,当关于今年的创痛的记忆退却之时,登山迷们还是会带着同样的热情重返珠峰。“My experience is that every year something goes wrong,” he said. “But when you cross three months, six months, eight months, people start asking me, ‘Hey Jiban, I want to go back.’”“我的经验是,每年都会出事,”他说。“不过三个月、六个月或者八个月过后,人们会开始对我说,‘嗨,吉班,我想回去。’” /201504/372635

On a bad day, driving the 30 kilometers from Beijing#39;s airport to the city#39;s center can take up to an hour. If urban planners have their way, residents of the megalopolis of Beijing and Tianjin and the surrounding province of Hebei in six years will be able to cross that entire urban sprawl in roughly the same amount of time. 赶上不顺的时候,从北京机场到市中心的30公里路程,开车可能要花上一个小时。如果市政规划部门进展顺利,北京、天津两大都市以及附近河北省的居民六年后将能够以同样这么多的时间横穿京津冀。On Tuesday, official Chinese media, citing a recent media interview with a Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport official, said that 9,500 kilometers of railway lines will crisscross the regional hub of 100 million people -- awkwardly called Jing-Jin-Ji -- by 2020. Under the plan, dwellers of the two-city, one-province urban jungle will be able to travel between major centers by rail in just 60 minutes.周二,中国官方媒体援引北京市交通委员会一位官员最近接受采访时的讲话称,到2020年,拥有1亿人口的京津冀将形成9,500公里的铁路网。根据这一计划,这两市一省的居民坐火车只需60分钟就能完成京津冀两座主要城市之间的穿行。That should be good news to Beijing#39;s beleaguered commuters, many of whom use private cars to get to work giving rise to some of the worst traffic congestion in the world. 对于在北京饱受通勤之苦的上班族来说,这应该是个好消息。他们中的许多人开私家车上班,使北京出现了全球最严重的交通拥堵。Every workday in 2013, traffic jams in the city lasted one hour and 50 minutes on average, up 25 minutes from the year-earlier period, according to the commission. 北京市交通委员会的数据显示,北京在2013年平均每个工作日会有持续1小时50分钟的交通拥堵,拥堵时间较上年延长了25分钟。During vacation periods, traffic jams can sometimes be even worse as hordes take to the roads to escape the capital. In the recent May Day holiday, a traffic jam of 55 kilometers in length formed on one of the highways leaving Beijing, according to the website of state-controlled China Radio International. 在节假日,交通拥堵情况有时会更加严重,因为会有很多人开车离开北京。官方媒体中国国际广播电台(China Radio International)网站的消息称,在最近这个五一劳动节,出京方向的一条高速路上曾出现长达55公里的拥堵。For now there appears to be no sign of a let-up in Chinese desire to own a car. Last year almost 18 million passenger cars were sold in the country, making it the world#39;s largest market. Consultancy IHS Automotive forecasts that figure to grow by just over 10% this year. 目前看来,中国民众买车的愿望似乎还没有减弱的迹象。去年,中国的乘用车销量将近1,800万辆,从而使中国成为全球最大的汽车市场。咨询公司IHS Automotive预计,今年中国乘用车销量的增幅将略高于10%。Experts say poor urban planning is also at fault and say cities like Beijing put too much emphasis on building infrastructure and not enough on integrating different transport modes such as rail and road or building up robust public transportation systems. 专家称,糟糕的市政规划也有责任。他们说,北京等城市过于重视修建基础设施,但却没有对整合铁路、公路等不同的交通方式以及建立强大的公共交通体系予以足够重视。Still, Beijing city planners#39; increased attention to suburban rail offers some hope that life in what combined would be the world#39;s largest city might be about to get a little easier. 不过,随着北京市政规划部门对城市铁路更加关注,人们会产生这样的希望:在一体化之后的京津冀这个全球最大城市,人们的生活可能会变得轻松一点。 /201405/295018

The UK will simplify visa applications for Chinese visitors through a new partnership with Belgium which allows travels permits for Britain and the European Schengen area countries to be processed in the same centre.英国将通过与比利时缔结新的合作伙伴关系,简化中国游客的签申请。相关安排将让中国公民在同一个中心申请英国和欧洲申根区国家的签。The move follows lobbying from UK retailers and business groups who complain that London is missing out on high-spending Chinese visitors who can shop in Paris, Milan and Berlin using just one visa covering the 26 nations of Europe’s border-free Schengen zone. Britain is not part of Schengen.此举出台之前,英国零售商和商业团体进行了游说,它们抱怨称,伦敦与花钱豪爽的中国游客擦肩而过,这些游客只需一个覆盖欧洲申根区26个国家的签,即可在巴黎、米兰和柏林购物。英国不是申根协议的一部分。The new UK-Belgium agreement means that Chinese tourists and business people will be able to obtain a visa for Britain and the Schengen area through a single visit to one of three joint application hubs in Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai.新的英国/比利时协议意味着,中国游客和商务人士只需跑一趟北京、广州或上海的联合申请中心,就能获得英国和申根区签。Last summer Theresa May, home secretary, streamlined the system by allowing Chinese visitors to use the same website to apply for a British and a Schengen visa. However, this still fell short of a true joint application system, since those requiring a UK permit were still required to visit a dedicated British visa centre in person to process their biometric data.去年夏天,英国内政大臣特里萨#8226;梅(Theresa May)精简了手续,允许中国游客使用同一个网站申请英国和申根签。然而,这仍算不上真正的联合申请系统,因为需要英国签的人士仍必须亲自跑一趟专门的英国签中心,以便处理他们的生物特征数据。Under the pilot programme, which will open on July 1, Chinese travellers will be able to apply and pay for both UK and Belgian visas online using just one set of supporting documents, then book a single visa appointment to complete the process.根据7月1日启动的试点方案,中国游客将可以在网上申请英国和比利时签并缴费,使用一套明文件,然后获得一个签预约以完成整个过程。Despite the current obstacles, the number of UK visitor visas issued to Chinese tourists and business people increased by 10 per cent in the year to March. The benefits of collaboration with Belgium may be relatively slim, given that relatively few Chinese visitors travel there.尽管目前存在种种障碍,但在截至今年3月的一年里,英国发放给中国游客和商务人士的旅游签数量增加了10%。与比利时合作的好处可能相对较小,因为前往该国的中国游客相对较少。In 2013, France admitted 335,961 Chinese visitors, while the figure for Italy was 333,705, and for Germany 268,404. The UK issued 291,919 Chinese visitor visas that year, compared to Belgium’s 14,223.2013年,法国迎来33.5961万中国游客,而意大利的这个数字是33.3705万,德国是26.8404万。英国在那一年向中国公民发放了29.1919万个旅游签,而比利时只发放了1.4223万个签。 /201506/382359A recent survey has revealed that China is considered to be the most #39;industrious#39; nation in the world, according to research from Monster Worldwide, in collaboration with Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung (GfK), a German global market research institute。国际就业咨询公司“巨兽”与德国市场调研公司捷孚凯集团合作的一项国际调查显示,中国人是全世界最勤奋的民族。The survey — with more than 8,000 respondents from Canada, France, Germany, India, Netherlands, ed Kingdom and ed States — gauged economic and labor-related competitive spirit by drilling down into “industriousness,” which describes the level to which a country was “hard-working, innovative and constantly creating new ideas/products,” according to the survey。接受该项调查的是来自加拿大、法国、德国、意大利、印度、荷兰、英国和美国的共8000人,调查研究了各国经济和与工作相关的竞争精神,深度探讨了“勤奋度”,这里的衡量指标指的是一个国家整体“勤奋工作、具有创新思维并持续不断创造新点子/新产品”的水平。According to the international survey, Chinese employees are the most industrious people in the world, followed by workers from Germany and the US. Employees from France are considered to be the laziest people in the world。该项调查得出中国人在全球范围内最勤奋,接下来是德国人、美国人。法国人则被认为是世界上最懒的民族。German employees responded confidently to the survey placing themselves first in the pecking order of global industriousness. French employees, on the other hand, seem to be aware of their limitations, and many of those surveyed placed France in last place。德国受访者对德国的竞争力很有信心,认为本国人民在全球勤奋度方面排名领先。另一方面,法国受访者则似乎意识到自己国家的问题,不少法国受访者都把法国排在了最后。German newspaper, Handelsblatt, reported that Chinese employees work on average 44.6 hours per week, while the German employees average about 33.5 hours of work per week。德国《商报》报道称中国员工每周平均工作44.6个小时,而德国员工每周平均工作时间为33.5个小时。And although China has more public holidays than Germany, Chinese employees have only ten days of paid leave on average, while German employees have 25 days。而且虽然中国的公众假期比德国多,中国员工平均只有10天的带薪休假,德国员工则有25天带薪假期。Industriousness Rankings全球人民勤奋度排名:China 中国Germany 德国ed States 美国Canada 加拿大India 印度ed Kingdom 英国Netherlands 荷兰France 法国 /201507/386963China’s two dominant manufacturers of railway equipment were on a roll at the end of October.中国两家最大的铁路设备制造商从10月底开始就频传捷报。China CNR won a contract to supply more than 280 subway cars to Boston’s transit system in the first successful US bid by a Chinese rolling stock company. A few weeks later a consortium including CNR’s main domestic rival, CSR Corp, secured the country’s first ever overseas contract for a high-speed rail project, awarded by the Mexican government.中国北车(CNR)赢得了一份向波士顿交通系统供应280多辆地铁车辆的合同,这是中国轨道车辆制造企业首次在美国成功中标。不久后,一个包括中国北车的主要国内竞争对手中国南车(CSR)的财团获得了墨西哥政府授予的、中国首个海外高铁项目合同。By early November, however, the Mexico contract had been cancelled and CNR and CSR both suspended trading in their shares ahead of a possible government-mandated merger that could reshape the global rail industry. The two companies aly rank as the world’s largest manufacturers of rolling stock, with annual sales of about bn each.但是,墨西哥的高铁合同在11月初即被取消。而在中国北车和中国南车在中国政府主导下的可能合并之前,两家公司的股票双双停牌。这一合并将重塑全球铁路行业格局。两公司已位居世界最大的轨道车辆制造商前列,每家年销售额都约在160亿美元。A decade after splitting CNR and CSR off from the same state-owned parent to promote competition in the domestic rail sector, the Chinese government now thinks the strategy has been too successful. It wants to recombine the two to prevent them from undercutting each other abroad.当年为了促进国内轨道行业竞争,中国北车和中国南车从同一家国有母公司分拆成立。10年后,中国政府现在认为这一战略成功得过了头,因此想重新合并两家公司,防止他们在竞标海外项目时相互掣肘。“They should have merged earlier,” says Zhao Jian, a transport expert at Beijing Jiaotong University. “We have to avoid situations in which they are at each other’s throats. Only the foreign fisherman benefits when Chinese sandpipers and oysters fight.” CNR and CSR, Mr Zhao adds, both invest about 2 per cent of revenue in research and development, much of it duplicated, compared with reinvestment of 5 per cent for international rivals such as Siemens.“他们早就应该合并,”北京交通大学运输问题专家赵坚说。“我们必须避免两家公司相互卡住对方喉咙的情况。中国鹬蚌相争,只会外国渔翁得利。”赵坚补充说,中国北车和中国南车在研发方面的投入都只占收入的约2%,且其中大部分是重复的,而像西门子(Siemens)这样的国际竞争对手,再投入的比例为5%。Chinese press reports have cited multiple examples of self-defeating competition between the two companies, including a Turkish locomotive tender for which CNR bid below cost and another in Argentina where CSR submitted a bid almost 50 per cent cheaper than its domestic rival. CNR and CSR declined interview requests.中国媒体的报道列举了多起两家公司之间恶性竞争的案例。一起是在土耳其的一个机车项目招标中,中国北车以低于成本价投标;另一起是在阿根廷,中国南车提交的竞标价格比中国北车低了近乎一半。两家公司均拒绝接受采访。The Boston contract, awarded in October, illustrated how divergent the two companies’ performances can be. While the Massachusetts Department of Transportation was effusive in its praise of CNR’s bid — which came in at 0m compared with a bn proposal from Bombardier of Canada — it disqualified CSR. Massachusetts officials said CSR’s bid was considered “unacceptable” in three categories including technology, manufacturing and quality assurance.中国北车10月份赢得的波士顿项目合同可以说明这两家公司的表现还是有很大差别的。马萨诸塞州运输部(Massachusetts Department of Transportation)对中国北车的标书大加赞赏——报价为5.7亿美元,而加拿大庞巴迪(Bombardier)报价10亿美元——但它取消了中国南车的竞标资格。该州官员说,中国南车标书被认为在技术、制造和质量保三方面“不可接受”。CNR’s bid also included a novel m investment in a final assembly facility in western Massachusetts that will create 250 jobs.中国北车的标书中还包括了一项特别的6000万美元的投资,用于在马萨诸塞州西部地区建立一家总装配厂,并创造250个就业机会。“The Boston deal shows that Chinese railway companies can compete against foreign brands,” says Robin Xu, a Shanghai-based transport analyst with UBS Securities. “We’re going to see more orders in future.”瑞银券(UBS Securities)驻上海的运输业分析师Robin Xu说:“这份波士顿合同表明,中国铁路设备公司能够与外国品牌竞争。今后,我们将看到更多订单。”According to Mr Xu, the final assembly facility was unusual as CNR and CSR typically bolt their trains together in China, where economies of scale allow them to offer prices 50 per cent lower than their international competition.Robin Xu认为,在美国建总装配厂是不寻常的,因为中国北车和中国南车通常都在国内组装车辆,这里的规模经济能够使他们的报价比国际竞争对手低一半。Rebounding from its failure in Boston, CSR’s participation in the Mexico contract was a much bigger prize. It represented the first overseas export order for high-speed rail technology from China, which has built the world’s largest high-speed train network in just five years. But CSR was not able to enjoy its coup for long. Within days the contract was rescinded after objections from Mexican legislators, who said it had been issued too hastily.从波士顿的失败中恢复过来,中国南车参与到墨西哥的合同是一个更大的胜利。墨西哥高铁合同是中国高铁技术首个海外出口订单,中国仅用5年时间就建起了世界最大的高速铁路网。但中国南车没能将胜利的喜悦品尝多久。几天内,这一合同就被取消,原因是遭到了墨西哥议员的反对,他们认为合同授予过于匆忙。Partly because of the hurried tender process, the Chinese consortium was the only bidder. It also emerged that a Mexican member of the Chinese group had built a mansion for Mexico’s first lady, who has vehemently denied any wrongdoing. State-owned China Railway Construction Corp, which led the consortium, has vowed to bid again for the project when it is retendered.部分由于仓促的招标过程,中国财团成为唯一的竞标者。还有消息称,中国竞标财团中的一家墨西哥公司为墨西哥第一夫人建了一处豪宅。她断然否认有任何不当行为。财团的牵头者、国有的中国铁建(China Railway Construction Corp)已宣告要在重新招标时再次竞标该项目。CSR and CNR could participate in the consortium’s second bid as either a merged entity or through a new joint venture focused on overseas markets. After denying merger reports in September, both companies’ shares have been suspended from trading since October 27 pending an announcement regarding a “significant event”.中国北车和中国南车可能以合并后的实体或通过成立一家新的专注海外市场的合资公司,参与该财团的第二次投标。在9月份否认合并的消息后,两家公司的股票从10月27日就已经双双停牌,原因是“重大事项”有待公告。A full-blown merger of the two would be a victory for China’s State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, which prioritises the efficiency and returns of national industrial champions over the wishes of the National Development and Reform Commission, which is more concerned about domestic competition and prices.对于中国国有资产监督管理委员会来说,中国北车和中国南车的彻底合并意味着一场胜利,因为它优先考虑的是民族工业领军企业的效率和收益,而非国家发展和改革委员会的期望,后者更关注国内竞争和价格。 /201412/351168

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