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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月22日 11:26:32
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Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty秦二世During his reign Qin Shi Huang made five inspection trips around the country.秦始皇在位期间曾有过五次巡视。During the last trip with his second son Huhai (胡亥)in 210 , Qin Shi Huang died suddenly at Shaqiu prefecture.最后一次巡视是在公元前210年与他的二儿子胡亥一起,秦始皇突然于沙丘县去世。Huhai, under the advice of two high officials---- the Imperial Secretariat Li Si (李斯) and the chief eunuch Zhao Gao, forged and altered Emperor’s will.在两位高级官员——丞相李斯和太监总管赵高的建议下,胡亥篡改并伪造了秦始皇的遗照。The faked decree ordered Qin Shi Huang’s first son, the heir Fusu (扶苏), to commit suicide, instead naming Huhai as the next emperor.假圣旨命令秦始皇的大儿子,公子扶苏自尽,胡亥成为了下一任皇帝。The decree also stripped the command of troops from Marshal Meng Tian (蒙括)---a faithful supporter of Fusu---- and sentenced Meng’s family to death.圣旨还剥夺了大将军蒙恬——扶苏的忠诚持者的军权并诛灭蒙恬一家。Zhao Gao step by step seized the power of Huhai, effectively making Huhai a puppet emperor.赵高一步步夺取了胡亥的权利,成功地让胡亥成为了一个傀儡皇帝。 /201509/397326

  

  A restaurant run by prisoners at a tough jail has been voted one of Britain#39;s top 10 fine dining venues.英国一所防范严密的监狱里的囚犯经营的餐厅被票选为英国十佳就餐场所之一。The Clink Restaurant, staffed by inmates from Cardiff and Prescoed prisons, beat establishments run by celebrity chefs including Gordon Ramsay and Jamie Oliver to take 10th place.The Clink餐厅的务人员是来自加的夫(Cardiff)和普莱斯各(Prescoed)的监狱的囚犯。这家监狱餐厅打败了包括戈登#8226;拉姆齐(Gordon Ramsay)和杰米·奥利弗(Jamie Oliver)等名厨经营的餐厅,夺得了榜单的第十名。Included in the top 10 was michelin-starred Le Manoir aux Quat#39;Saisons in Great Milton, Oxfordshire, which came third.其他上榜餐厅还有位于牛津郡(Oxfordshire)大弥尔顿(Great Milton)的四季农庄餐厅(Le Manoir aux Quat#39;Saisons),这家米其林星级餐厅在榜单上位列第三。Reviews on website TripAdvisor were used to decide who should win the 2015 Travellers#39; Choice Restaurants awards.猫途鹰(TripAdvisor)网站上的用户被用于决定谁能赢得2015年旅行者首选餐厅奖(the 2015 Travellers#39; Choice Restaurants awards)。Customers said the ;friendly and informative staff; put other waiters to shame.顾客说,The Clink餐厅“友好且善于提供有用信息的员工”让别处的侍应相形见绌。The 96-seat restaurant, serving breakfast and lunch, opened to the public in 2012. Thirty inmates are each paid #163;14 for a 40-hour week.这家餐厅有96个座位,提供早餐和午餐,于2012年对公众开放。30位囚犯每周工作40小时,每人可获得14英镑的报酬。The Clink has been credited with helping to slash reoffending rates. Latest figures show it has reduced the rate of the released prisoners who worked there to 12.5 per cent.The Clink餐厅被认为有助于降低再犯率。最新数据显示,该餐厅把曾在此工作的囚犯获释后的再犯率降低至12.5%。TripAdvisor spokesman James Kay said: ;Given how competitive the UK restaurant industry is, the fact that The Clink Restaurant is the only winning Welsh restaurant demonstrates the incredibly high standard of food and service that the team consistently delivers to customers.;猫途鹰的发言人詹姆斯·凯伊(James Kay)称:“The Clink餐厅是威尔士唯一一家上榜的餐厅。考虑到英国餐饮业竞争的激烈程度,这无疑显示了这家餐厅的员工们坚持带给顾客的高水准饮食及务。”It was also named top spot in Cardiff out of 946 restaurants in the city.这家餐厅也被提名为全卡的夫市946家餐厅之中的就餐首选地。Opened in 2012, The Clink Cardiff is now one of four restaurants run by prisoners across the UK through The Clink Charity.卡的夫的The Clink餐厅于2012年开张,是慈善机构The Clink Charity在英国国内开的由囚犯提供务的四家餐厅之一。The charity also has restaurants at HMPs Brixton, High Down and Styal and aims to reduce reoffending through projects that train and give practical skills to prisoners to aid their rehabilitation.该慈善机构也在布里克斯顿(Brixton)监狱(HMP,即Her Majesty#39;s Prison)、高唐(High Down)监狱和斯蒂亚尔(Styal )监狱开了餐厅,旨在通过这些项目,培训囚犯并授予他们实用技能,帮助他们改过自新,以降低再犯罪率。Chris Moore, chief executive of The Clink Charity, said: ;The whole team is delighted to have made it into the top 10 restaurants in the UK by TripAdvisor users, and to be ranked so highly against almost 1,000 restaurants in the city of Cardiff is a huge achievement for us.;The Clink Charity的首席执行官克里斯·尔(Chris Moore)表示:“餐厅的所有员工都为餐厅被猫途鹰网友评选入围英国十佳餐厅榜单而高兴。打败了卡的夫市近1000家餐厅,并 得到这么高的评价,对我们来说是一项巨大成就。” /201510/405524。

  Tang of Shang:At the end of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang tribe became powerful gradually. Witnessing tyrannical activities of Jie, and the alienation of the popular will, Tang was determined to overthrow Xia.商汤:夏朝末年,商族逐渐强大,眼见夏桀暴虐,失去民心,汤决心灭夏。Meanwhile, Jie feared that the might iness of Shang might be a threat, so he summoned Tang to the capital and imprisoned him in Xiatai.同时,桀担心汤势力壮大而威胁自己,便将汤召人夏都,囚禁在夏台。The Shang tribe immediately sent a lot of money to Jie and bribed his favorites as well. Therefore, Tang was released.商族又送桀以重金,并贿赂桀的亲信,使汤获释归商。After this, he tried to win people’s support with benevolent policies.汤以仁厚收揽人心,争取人民的持。First,heenumeratedJie,simmoraty, calling on vassal states to desert Jie and submit to his authority. Then,to those who refused to follow his advice, he launched successive wars to eliminate Jie#39;s power.其一,汤历数夏桀的暴虐无道,号召夏的附属小国背弃桀,归附商;其二,对不听他劝告者,就先后出兵攻灭,以剪除桀的羽翼。The more he fought, the stronger he was, while Jie became isolated.商汤越战越强,夏桀陷于孤立的境地。Later, Tang moved the capital to Bo, and the preparation to attack the Xia Dynasty was finally made.汤还迁都于亳,以此为前进的据点,准备最后攻灭夏朝。Tang adopted Yi Yin’s suggestions to stop paying tribute to the Xia Dynasty in order to sound out the strength of Jie.汤还采纳伊尹的建议,停止朝贡夏朝以试夏桀的实力。Soon, Jie ordered Jiuyi tribes to dispatch troops to go on a punitive expedition on Tang. This indicated that Jie was able to maneuver the army of Jiuyi, so Tang and Yi Yin apologized to Jie at once, and resumed paying tribute.桀命令九夷族发兵征讨商,这说明桀还能调动九夷族的兵力,汤和伊尹就马上请罪,恢复向夏桀的进贡。A year later, Jiuyi tribes could not bear the inhumane control of Jie and rebelled one after another; Jie’s power was greatly weakened.一年后,九夷族忍受不了桀的残暴统治,纷纷叛离,使桀的力量大为减弱。Tang and Yi Yin took the opportunity of it, calling on all tribes to crusade against Jie. Consequently ,Jie was defeated at the battle of Mingtiao (East of the present-day Fengqiu in Henan). Tang established the second slave dynasty—the Shang Dynasty, and the capital was Bo.汤和伊尹见时机成熟,就由汤召集部众,出兵伐夏,在鸣条(今河南封丘东)一举攻灭了夏桀,建立了中国历史上第二个奴隶制王朝——商朝,定都亳。During his reign, Tang lightened taxes and encouraged production to appease the morale.汤建立商朝后,减轻征赋,鼓励生产,安抚民心。His influence sp to the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and many outlying tribes became vassal states.商的势力扩展至黄河上游,许多部落成为其属国。The Shang Dynasty became another powerful dynasty.商最终成为又一个强大的奴隶制王朝。Tang had been the tribe leader for 17 years and the king of the Shang Dynasty for 13 years after he founded it.汤为部落首领17年,建商后称王13年。He died of illness.后病故。Yi Yin:The establishment of the Shang Dynasty had a close connection with the assistance of Yi Yin.伊尹:商汤建朝与伊尹的辅佐是分不开的。Yi Yin, the prime minister, had been a dowry slave of Tang’s wife working in the kitchen.伊尹,宰相,曾是汤的妻子陪嫁奴隶,在厨房干活。He was very capable. In order to have Tang notice his ability, he sometimes cooked the meal delicious, sometimes salty or tasteless deliberately.伊尹很有才能,为了让汤发现自己,故意有时把菜做得很可口,有时却或咸或淡。When Tang blamed him for this, Yi Yin took the opportunity to utter his opinion about administration, and Tang was shocked. Realizing his talent, Tang freed Yi Yin and assigned him as the prime minister.有一次,汤就此事责问他,他就乘机向汤谈论了自己对治理国政的见解。汤大为惊奇,知道他是一个贤才,就免除他奴隶的身份,任为右相。Since then,under the design of Yi Yin, Tang made an active preparation to overthrow the Xia Dynasty.自此,在伊尹的谋划下,汤积极准备灭夏。After the death of Tang, Yi Yin assisted Tang’three children ruling the country.汤死后,伊尹辅佐汤的3个孩子为天子。King Tai Jia did not obey the decree made by Tang in his three-year reign, and Yi Yin persuaded him for many times, but failed. Consequently, Yi Yin shut him in Tonggong Palace, hoping him to have a self-reflection, and governed the state himself.太甲在位3年期间,不遵守商汤立下的法令,伊尹多次劝告无效,于是,伊尹把太甲关进桐宫,希望他反省,自己亲自执政。Living in the Tonggong Palace for three years, Tai Jia eventually regretted and went straight. Then, Yi Yin restored him.太甲在桐宫住了3年,终于悔过自新,伊尹又把政权交给他。TaiJia became benevolent and diligent, so the people began to live a stable life, and all vassal states admired him very much.太甲改恶从善, 勤政修德,人民生活安定,各属国都很钦佩。Living for more than a hundred years, Yi Yin had been the prime minister for twenty years, laying a solid foundation for the stabilization of the Shang Dynasty. He became the first capable official in Chinese history.伊尹活了100多岁,当了20年国相,为商王朝的稳定打下了坚实的基础,成为我国历史上第一个著名的贤相。Pan Geng: After the establishment, the Shang Dynasty moved five times in three hundred years due to the deluge of the Yellow River, or civil strifes.盘庚:商朝建立后的300多年中共搬迁5次,或避黄河泛滥之天灾,或避内乱之人祸。Among them,the most famous one was Pan Geng’s move to Yin (the present-day Anyang in Henan). Once settled, the Shang Dynasty had never moved, so it is also called Yin Shang.Pan Geng was the nineteenth king.其中最著名的是盘庚迁都。商定都殷(今河南安阳)后,再未迁移过,故商朝亦盘庚是商朝的第19任君主。He removed the capital to Yin after a fierce struggle.一番激烈斗争后,他迁都于殷。Kings succeeded Tai Jia all lived a decayed life. They were superstitious and paid little attention to state affairs.太甲后的历代君, 王生活逐渐腐化,迷信鬼神,不知发展生产。With the internal struggle for power and conflicts among the nobility intensified,arms were frequently appealed to.王室内部争权夺利,矛盾日趋尖锐,经常兵戈相见。At the same time, some vassal states did not obey the command, each going his own way and fighting with each other.与此同时,一些属国也不再听从商朝的指挥,各行其道,相互争斗。Pan Geng succeeded in peril.危难之际,盘庚继位。He was a sagacious and virtuous ruler. When analyzing the situation,he believed that the capital should be moved to Yin, but the notion offended the interest of the majority of nobles, and encountered strong objection.Meanwhile, the common people were in d of migration, and reluctant to leave their hometown.他是个贤明有德之君,分析形势后,他认为应迁都于殷。可是这一打算却触犯了大多数贵族奴隶主的利益,遭到了强烈的反对;而百姓因畏惧迁徙之苦,亦不愿离开故土。Determined, Pan Geng finally led his officials and civilians to trudge from the north of the Yellow River to Yin, in the south of the Yellow River.但是盘庚决心已下,终率领官民经过艰难跋涉,从黄河北迁都至黄河南面的殷地。When settled, the state began to practice Tang’s policy, so that the political situation tended to be stabilized, the declination held back, the goal to make the country strong was achieved, and a new economic and cultural prospect also came forth.迁殷以后,“行汤之政”,政治局势趋于稳定,遏制了商的衰亡之势,达到了迁都图强的目的,社会经济和文化也随着出现了一个新的发展局面。Wu Ding:Wu Ding, the best ruler after Pan Geng, left behind him a much-told story in history.武丁:武丁是盘庚以后最好的国王,历史上曾留下他借梦求贤相的佳话。He is supposed to have spent his early years among the common people, being familiar with their hardship;therefore, he formed a simple living habit. Additionally, he made friend with a slave, Fu Yue, who was twenty years older than he was.武丁儿时曾在平民中生活过,不仅养成了简朴的生活习惯,还同一个比他大20岁,名叫傅说的奴隶交上了朋友。Though a slave, Fu Yue was bright and capable.傅说虽是奴隶,但聪明能干,文武全才。When he became the king, Wu Ding intended to have Fu Yue as prime minister, but feared that the other officials would not agree because of Fu Yue#39;s identity.武丁即位后想请傅说做宰相,但碍于其身份,又恐大臣不答应。It is said that Wu1 Ding had not uttered a word for three years. One day, he suddenly said that in the dream the forefather Tang had asked him to invite Fu Yue to be the prime minister.相传武丁三年不说话,后自称先祖汤托梦给他,让他请傅说为相。Then he described the appearance and locality of Fu Yue, ordering officials to look for him. Fu Yue was found among the criminals eventually.说出傅说的面貌和所在后,令百官到处去寻找,终于在罪徒中找着了。Since the Shang people trusted ghost, the nobility dared not to object when Fu Yue was appointed as prime minister.殷人信鬼,傅说做宰相,贵族们不敢反对。Thereafter, there were some innovations in politics, the state became stable, and the Shang Dynasty restored.其后,商在政治上进行改革,国家日趋安定,商朝因而复兴起来。King Zhou of Shang :King Di Xin, the last king of the Shang Dynasty is called Zhou, one of the notorious despots in Chinese history.商纣:商朝最后一个国王帝辛,叫做纣,是历史上有名的暴君。Quick-witted and Quick-tempered ,Shang Zhou in his early reign showed the abilities which surpassed the ordinary man.他机智敏捷,却又脾气暴躁。早年间,其统治能力超乎常人。He headed the troops to fight a long time war with the Dongyi tribe, during which he won the battle frequently.他曾亲自率兵与东夷进行了一场持久战,在战争中屡屡获胜。After the victory over Dongyi, he sp the advanced technology and culture of Shang to the Huaishui River and the Yangtze River valley, so he was a king who had made achievements and contributions.平定东夷后,他把商朝先进的生产技术和文化传播到淮水和长江流域一带,是个有成就、有贡献的君主。However, the constant war exhausted the state power, and tadded to the people’s burden.但是,长期的战争消耗了商朝的国力,加重了人民的负担。Meanwhile, the triumph developed Shang Zhou’thought of being proud and seeking for enjoyment, which made him become another notorious tyranny after Xia Jie.而战争的胜利,又滋长了商纣居功自傲和贪图享乐的思想,使他成为我国历史上继夏桀之后的又一个臭名昭著的暴君。In the later years, he was given over to drinking and women, preferring these to the proper governance of the country, and ignoring almost all the state affairs. His viciousness was beyond measures.在其统治后期,商纣沉湎酒色,荒淫无度,置朝政于不顾。Apart from this, he tried every means to extort money form people, so that countless jewellery and treasure piled up in Lu tai (Shang Zhou’s palace).大肆搜刮民财,无数珍宝堆满了鹿台。Shang Zhou favored a beautiful consort Daji, and committed all manners of e-vil and cruel deeds with her.宠信美女妲己,与她一起行凶作恶。His brother Wei Zi tried to persuade him to change, but got rebuked.他的哥哥微子前来进谏,却反遭指责。His uncle Bi Gan similarly remonstrated with him, but Shang Zhou had his heart ripped out so he could see what the heart of a sage looked like.他的叔叔比干来劝他,商纣却把他的心挖出来看看是什么样子。When his other brother Ji Zi heard this,feigning madness,he went to remonstrate with the kingly brother but,was imprisoned.他另一哥哥箕子虽然装疯指责他,也没能免遭囚禁。At that time,the Shang Dynasty was in imminent,danger.此时的商王朝已是岌岌可危。When King Wu of the Zhou launched a punitive expedition on Zhou, he was utterly isolated.武王伐封时,商王朝众叛亲离,军队倒戈。With his army changing the side in the war,Shang Zhou fled to the capital,set light to Lutai and committed suicide by burning himself.商纣逃回商都,在鹿台自焚而死。 /201511/407423

  Many people think that squeezing in breakfast before work is a feat in itself. However, research from the World Economic Forum states that successful people make the most of their mornings.很多人觉得上班前能挤出时间吃早餐就已经很了不起了。然而,世界经济论坛的一项调查显示成功人士都充分利用了早晨的时间。They have released a list of 14 things that successful people do in the mornings before the first meal of the day.调查人员列出了成功人士早餐前会做的14件事。It includes exercising, spending quality time with the family, networking over coffee and working on a personal-passion project.这些事情包括锻炼,与家人共度珍贵的时光,在喝咖啡时浏览社交网站和做自己热爱的项目。The WEF states: ;Those among us who have managed to find professional success and eke out a life actively embrace this philosophy. They must set aside their first hours of the day to invest in their top-priority activities before other people’s priorities come rushing in.;世界经济论坛称:“我们当中那些事业有成、生活积极的人都遵循这样的理念。他们把一天中最开头的几个小时用来做自己最重要的事情,然后才处理对其他人重要的事情。”This is backed up by science - Laura Vanderkam, a time-management expert and the author of “What the Most Successful People Do Before Breakfast;, cites the famous finding of Roy Baumeister, a Florida State University psychology professor, that willpower is like a muscle that becomes fatigued from overuse.时间管理专家劳拉·凡德卡姆用科学持这一理论,他在自己的著作《成功人士早餐前做什么》中引用了弗罗里达州立大学鲍迈斯特的重要发现,那就是意志力就像肌肉,会因为过度使用而疲惫。Diets are easy to keep up with during the day, for example, but often fall flat in the evening when our bodies and willpower get tired.例如,白天节食一整天很容易,但在晚上我们经常因为身体和意志力都疲惫而大吃大喝起来。However, rest assured that you don#39;t have to do all 14 every day before you munch your museli - just a selection.但也放心,你不必在早餐前把14件事情都做了——挑几件就行。The WEF says: ;While they might not do all of these things every morning, each has been found to be an effective way to start the day.;世界经济论坛研究人员称:“虽然那些成功人士并不会在每天早上做所有这些事情,但它们当中每一件都是开启新的一天的有效方式。”1. Wake up early - according to Laura Vanderkam, 90% of executives wake up before 6am on weekdays. PepsiCo CEO Indra Nooyi, for example, wakes at 4am and is in the office no later than 7am. Meanwhile, Disney CEO Bob Iger gets up at 4:30 to , and Twitter and Square CEO Jack Dorsey is up at 5:30 to jog.早起——劳拉·凡德卡姆称,90%的高管工作日都会在6点前起床。比如百事公司的CEO英德拉(Indra Nooyi)每天早上4点起床,7点前就会到办公室。迪士尼CEO鲍勃伊格尔(Bob Iger)每天4点半起床开始读书,Twitter和Square的CEO杰克·多尔塞(Jack Dorsey)每天早上5点半起床慢跑。2. Drink water instead of coffee. Drinking water in the morning apparently helps you feel more alert, rehydrates your body, and kickstarts your metabolism.喝水而不是咖啡。早晨喝水会帮助你更清醒,为身体补充水分,加快新陈代谢。3. Exercise - beyond the fact that exercising in the morning means they can’t later run out of time, Vanderkam says a pre-breakfast workout helps reduce stress later in the day, counteracts the effects of high-fat diet, and improves sleep.锻炼——在时间充裕的情况下,凡德卡姆说早餐前的锻炼可以减压,中和高脂肪食品,提高睡眠质量。4. Work on a top-priority business project做最重要的一个商业项目。5. Work on a personal-passion project做自己热爱的一个项目。6. Invest in family time, like ing stories to the kids or cooking a big breakfast together.注重与家人相处,比如为孩子讲故事或者与家人一起做一顿丰盛早餐。7. Connect with spouses before you are tired from the day#39;s activities趁自己还未被公事所累的时候与爱人沟通8. Make your bed - this leads to a happier and more productive day整理床铺——这可以让你有一个愉快又高效的一天。9. Network over coffee喝咖啡的时候查看社交网络10. Meditate to clear your mind冥想,理清思绪。11. Write down things you#39;re grateful for写下让你感激的事情12. Plan and strategise for the day ahead - Using the mornings to do big-picture thinking helps you prioritize and set the trajectory of the day为一天做计划——用早晨的时间计划一整天有助于决定事情的优先次序。13. Check your email查邮件14. Read the news读新闻Some people have been sceptical about the list:有一些人对这个列表表示怀疑:Successful people apparently get round to eating breakfast at about 4pm.成功人士显然能在早晨4点左右抽空吃饭。I don#39;t always even wake up before breakfast, let alone anything else我在早餐前都醒不过来,更不用说做什么事了。By ;before breakfast;, you mean the 24 hours leading up to breakfast?“早餐前”是说早餐前的24小时吗?To be successful, you now have to ;work on a personal-passion project; before breakfast...想要成功,你现在就得在早餐前“从事自己热爱的一个项目”……However, there is no doubt that getting organised before work does lead to a more productive day.不管怎样,工作前井井有条无疑是会提高效率的。 /201511/4078625.Chocolate5.巧克力When you take a bite out of a well-made chocolate bar, it feels like you#39;re eating the food of the gods. And, well, you#39;d be exactly right.当你从一根做好的巧克力棒上咬下一口的时候,你会觉得自己是在吃神赐的食物。好吧,确实是如此。The story begins as far back as 1500, when the Olmec managed to find and utilize cocoa beans. Of course, it was not called #39;cocoa#39; then, but #39;kakawa#39; – where we get the name from. They managed to turn it into a drink, but historians are hard-pressed to find any evidence that the Olmec did much else with it. The Mayans, however, loved the stuff. They identified it as a food of Kon, the god of rain and wind. They drank it, used the mixture as a substitute for blood in rituals, and even used the beans as currency. That#39;s right; once upon a time, you could buy things with chocolate. As for the solid bars we all know and love? They didn#39;t pop up until around 1850AD. Even after all of these years, however, we still love to offer chocolate to people we praise highly.故事开始于公元前1500年,奥尔梅克人发现了可可豆,并研究其用法。当然,那时候它还不叫;可可;,而是;kakawa;——现在的名字由此演变而来。他们将其做成一种饮品,但历史学家们很难找到据明奥尔梅克人用它制作了其他的东西。但是玛雅人很爱这种东西。他们确信它是风雨神Kon的一种食物。他们饮用这种饮品,在祭祀仪式上用它代替血,甚至用可可豆来当货币。没错,曾经有一段时间,你可以用巧克力来买东西。那么我们所认识且钟爱的巧克力棒呢?它们直到公元1850年才出现。然而,纵然过去了这么多年,我们仍然喜欢为我们珍爱的人赠送巧克力。4.Worcestershire Sauce4.辣酱油While relatively unknown to most of the world, this foodstuff gets a spot on this list because it was made entirely by accident.尽管辣酱油在世界上很多地方都鲜有人知,但我们还是将这种食物纳入这篇文章中,因为它的制作完全是个意外。It began its life as an Indian sauce. The recipe made its way over to Worcester, England, where two chemists, John Wheeley Lea and William Perrins, got their hands on it. They marketed this new exotic sauce, claiming all sorts of healing properties to cure common problems. When they actually made the stuff, however, it tasted awful. The pair stuffed the rest in a barrel and left it in a cellar, presumably to use again some day. That day didn#39;t come until two years later. The pair, rediscovering their old invention, decided to give it a second shot. What should have probably murdered them, actually tasted very good. The pair decided to sell the sauce under the name #39;Lea and Perrins,#39; a brand name that is strong to this day. Who knows how many other food inventions we#39;ve missed, due to people not willing to eat vastly out-of–date food?它最初是一种印度酱油。这个食谱传到了英国伍斯特,被两位化学家John Wheeley Lea 和William Perrins所得。他们售卖这种新的异国酱油,宣称它能治愈一般的疾病。然而,当他们实际制成了这种东西的时候,它的味道非常糟糕。这两个人将剩下的酱油倒进一个桶里,存放在地窖中,准备过几天再用。而这一天直到两年后才到来。这两个人重新发现了他们过去的发明,决定再试试。差点让他们笑死的是,这东西尝起来非常美味。两人决定售卖这种酱油,给它取名;Lea and Perrins;,这个商标直到今天依然赫赫有名。因为人们不愿意吃那些过期的食物,谁知道我们因此错过了多少美食的发明?3.Milkshake3.奶昔Milkshakes are a lovely treat for the young, but you definitely would not want to give the original recipe to a child.奶昔是款待年轻人的好东西,但你绝对不愿意给孩子们品尝早期的奶昔。The first time the world saw the word #39;milkshake#39; was in 1885, in a British newspaper. The article did not go on to talk about if people preferred strawberry or banana flavour; in fact, what the article did say was that milkshake was a ;sturdy, healthful eggnog type of drink, with eggs, whiskey, etc., served as a tonic as well as a treat.; Yes, that#39;s right; the original milkshake contained alcohol. The actual milkshake we know and love came a little later in the 1900s. In 1922, a man called Ivan ;Pop; Coulson wanted to make a remix on the recipe. Ever an experimenter, he added the one ingredient that made a huge impact on the recipe of milkshake forever; ice cream. Since then, the version with whiskey in it has fallen out of public knowledge; unfortunately, alcoholic milkshakes are not an item on the #39;hidden #39; in fast food places.;奶昔;一词于1885年在英国的一份报纸上第一次问世。文章并没有继续讨论人们更喜欢草莓还是香蕉的香味;实际上,这篇文章所描述的奶昔是一种;坚硬的、健康的蛋酒式饮品,里面加有鸡蛋、威士忌等,既是一种补药,也可用来款待宾朋。;没错,最初的奶昔里面含有酒精。我们现在知道且喜爱的奶昔出现得较晚,到20世纪90年代才出现。1922年,一个名叫Ivan Pop Coulson的人想在食谱中再混合点东西。他在试验品中加入了一种发挥了重要作用的原料——冰激凌。从那以后,加有威士忌版本的奶昔就逐渐退出了公众视野;不幸地是,酒味奶昔在快餐店的;隐藏菜单;里也不提供。2.Graham Crackers2.全麦饼干Do you feel less lust after eating a graham cracker? You should do – or, at least, the inventor of it hopes you do.吃完一片全麦饼干以后是否觉得欲望有所减轻呢?这正是——或至少是其发明者所希望的。In the 1830s, reverend Sylvester Graham decided that America had become too lust-filled. In order to curb the problem and help people across the nation get back onto a good God-fearing path, he created the #39;Graham diet.#39; The diet consisted of wheat, fruit and vegetables, but absolutely no meat; eating meat and fatty foods was, Graham claimed, a way to invoke sexual thoughts in the mind. Sylvester Graham invented the graham cracker as a part of his newfound diet. He wasn#39;t alone in his mind-set; someone else who shared this was John Harvey Kellogg. Does the name seem familiar? That#39;s right – Kellogg#39;s corn flakes. The beloved breakfast cereal was Kellogg#39;s way to save the souls of the American people, but ended up being a delicious breakfast rather than a cure for the wandering eye. Next time you need to calm down, try stuffing graham crackers into your mouth. If the wheat doesn#39;t do the trick, the dry mouth certainly will.19世纪30年代,教士Sylvester Graham认为美国欲望太过膨胀。为解决这一问题,帮助全国的人们回到一条虔诚的道路上,他发明了;Graham 饮食;。这种饮食中包括谷物、水果和蔬菜,但绝对没有肉;Graham认为,吃肉和脂肪类食品会引发人心中的淫欲。Sylvester Graham发明了全麦饼干作为他的全新饮食的一部分。他并不是一个人将想法付诸实际;另外一个与他共享的是John Harvey Kellogg。这名字是不是有些熟悉?没错——Kellogg#39;s玉米片。Kellogg想要以这种受人喜爱的早餐谷物来拯救美国人的灵魂,谁知它没有拯救得了迷茫的双眼,却成为了美味的早餐。当下次你需要冷静一下的时候,试试在你嘴里塞上全麦饼干。如果小麦解决不了问题,那口干舌燥的感觉肯定会让你达到目的。1.Marshmallows1.棉花糖To better understand where the marshmallow came from, you must first understand that the name #39;marshmallow#39; is a combination of #39;marsh#39; and #39;mallow#39;. It refers to the Mallow plants that grew around marshes; hence the name.为了更好地理解棉花糖从哪而来,你必须要理解棉花糖的名字,;棉花糖marshmallow;是由marsh(沼泽)和mallow(锦葵)组成。它是指生长在沼泽中的锦葵,这就是它的名字。This specific plant was harvested in Egyptian times. They did not merely eat it for its sweet flavour, however. Back then, Egyptian doctors were convinced that marshmallow was an effective way of curing a sore throat in children, which sounds like a medication a child would never reject. In fact, it#39;s thought that this miracle medicine was eaten by richer kids as a treat, rather than a cure. As for the marshmallow as we know of it today, the root goes back to 1800s France, where it was pushed as a treat for kids and adults alike. Then, in 1948, Alex Doumak created a way to make the little delights in a way that was completely automated, allowing the sweet treat to be produced efficiently. While the marshmallow is treated as a candy rather than medicine, it wouldn#39;t hurt to buy a big bag and #39;experiment#39; for yourself next time you catch a cold.这种特殊的植物在埃及时代丰收。但人们不是仅仅为了食用它的甜味。当时,埃及的医生相信,沼泽中的锦葵可以有效地治疗儿童咽喉疼痛,孩子似乎不会拒绝这种药。实际上,人们认为,富人家的孩子吃这种神奇的药作为消遣,而不是治疗疾病。至于今天我们所知道的棉花糖,要追溯到19世纪的法国,它很受孩子和成年人的喜爱。到1948年,Alex Doumak发明了一种方法使这种小甜品的生产完全自动化,提高了它的生产效率。尽管棉花糖成为了一种糖果而非药品,但你下次感冒的时候买上一大包自己;试验;一下也不会有害。翻译:赵倩 来源:前十网 /201510/405397A cool new service in Japan is meant to help busy career women cope with the stress of their hectic lifestyles. For about 7,900 yen, they can hire #39;Ikemeso#39; – cute men – to wipe away their tears, quite literally!当下,日本新兴一种酷炫务,能够帮助职业女性排解忙碌生活带来的种种压力。花上7900日元(约合420元人民币),日本妇女就能雇一名“擦泪帅哥”(日语叫Ikemeso)帮忙擦眼泪!Here#39;s how it works: You call the company and pick one of seven Ikemeso, who will then arrive at your workplace to help you release stress through crying. If you#39;re in tears aly, the licensed “crying therapist” will simply wipe your tears away with the softest handkerchief and comfort you with kind words. If work-related stress hasn#39;t pushed you to tears yet, the Ikemeso will play an emotional film meant to induce crying. After the is over, he#39;ll wipe your tears away.究竟是怎么回事呢?原来,顾客通过拨打电话,能从7位“擦泪帅哥”中挑选一名。随后,这位帅哥就会到达你的工作地点,助你痛哭减压。如果你已经哭成了泪人,“痛哭治疗师”会一边用最柔软的手绢擦去你眼角的泪水,一边温柔地安慰。如果你还未被工作压垮,失声痛哭的话,他就会放一部催泪的情感电影,并在观影后,为你擦干泪水。There are different types of guys you can choose from, depending on your taste – the little brother, the intellectual, the bad boy, the slightly older hot guy, and more. The service is all set to launch on September 24.顾客还能根据口味,选择偏爱的帅哥,其中就包括了邻家小哥、知识分子、坏小子、性感大叔等。这项务于9月24日正式推出。According to Hiroki Terai, the creator of Ikemeso, “Japanese women are under tremendous stress at the office here in Tokyo, which often ends in tears. We are here to provide a kind word and brush the tears away by one of our seven lovely men on call.”务的发起人寺井广树(Hiroki Terai)说:“在东京,职场女性承受的压力实在太大了,常常让她们失声痛哭。我们这7个帅哥随叫随到,希望其中一个能安慰她们,帮她们拭去泪水。”Some will undoubtedly find the whole idea sexist, but Terai claims that the company has been receiving queries non-stop ever since they launched the website last week. He also insists that the service is not a hoax. “More and more women are trying to hold down professional jobs these days but the male dominated, workaholic workforce makes it hard for them,” he said. “We want such put-upon women to have a good cry and feel better when they feel targeted.”毫无疑问,不少人会觉得这想法充满了性别歧视,但寺井广树称,自公司网站上线一周来,他们接到了顾客源源不断的咨询电话。他坚称,这项务并非恶作剧。“如今,越来越多的女性都尽力保住自己的工作,但男性工作狂依旧称霸职场。”他说,“我们希望压力过大的女性能好好哭上一场,遭受不公平待遇时不至于灰心丧气。”“Who doesn#39;t feel better after a big boo-hoo?”“毕竟,大哭一场后,谁不会感到如释重负呢?”The term Ikemeso is a word play that combines ikemen (hot guy) and mesomeso (crying). Oh, and speaking of ikemen, remember Shabani the handsome gorilla that used to drive Japanese women nuts?Ikemeso这个词由ikemen(帅哥)和mesomeso(大哭)结合而来。说到帅哥,不知你还记不记得名古屋动物园那只迷倒日本妇女的大猩猩?For now, Ikemeso seem to only cater to stressed employees, but judging by the positive feedback the service has gotten even prior to its official launch, it#39;s fair to assume it will soon be more widely available.目前,这项务仅面向备受压力的职业女性。不过,鉴于其尚未正式推出便大获人气,今后或许会面向各个群体。It#39;s a bizarre service, to be sure, but not by Japanese standards. After all, we#39;re talking about the country that came up with strange ideas like a slow taxi service, a dress-rental business for men who want to feel like princesses or a rent-a-friend service, among many others.实话说,“帅哥擦泪”听起来颇为疯狂,但放在日本,大概算稀松平常。毕竟,发生在日本的奇事太多了,比如慢车务、男人租公主裙务、租友务等等。 /201509/400967

  

  From your first date to that all-important first kiss, new relationships are marked by a series of milestones.从你们的第一次约会再到重要的初吻,一系列的“里程碑”都标志着你们的情侣关系。But if you#39;re wondering when the #39;right#39; time is to spend the night with your new squeeze, a new survey may answer that question once and for all. The results from more than 2,000 men and women have mapped out the journey of your average long-term relationship, with everything from holding hands to having babies.但是,如果你想知道,和你的新伴侣共度良宵的最佳时机是什么时候,那么一项最新的研究也许能帮你彻底解决这个问题。这项来自2000多个男人和女人的调查结果,已经帮你描绘出了长期的恋爱旅程,涉及了从牵手到生子一系列的问题。According to the research, saying #39;I love you#39; normally happens after five months of dating (144 days), whereas you#39;ll have to wait a total of six months before being given a drawer at your partner#39;s house.调查显示,说“我爱你”通常是在约会的144天,也就是相识大约五个月以后。而一般在六个月后,你才会去你的伴侣的家里。It also takes us longer to hold hands with than to kiss a new partner, with 31 per cent claiming they would snog their date immediately, and 34 per cent revealing they would wait between one and two weeks to holds hands.并且调查显示,情侣间的亲吻要比牵手来得更早。31%的人称他们初次约会便有了亲吻拥抱的行为,而34%的人表示,大约过一两周才会有牵手的行为。Meanwhile, more than a quarter (27 per cent) of Brits wait between one and two weeks to sleep with their partner, while 23 per cent wait one month. However, three fifths (60 per cent) would introduce their partner to their best friend within the first month.同时,超过四分之一(27%)的英国人会在一两周之后和伴侣共眠,而23%的人则会在一个月之后。此外,五分之三(60%)的人会在一个月以内把恋人介绍给朋友认识。The study also sheds some light on that all-important six-month mark, suggesting that this is when three major relationship milestones take place: the revealing of one#39;s imperfections (173 days), the first argument (170 days) and when most parental introductions take place.研究还指出,关系发展到六个月的时候是最重要的,有三个主要的“里程碑”通常会发生在这个时候:发现对方的不足(173天);第一次争吵(170天);还有互相见家长。Once the crucial six-month milestone has passed, daters feel it#39;s safe to splash out on the relationship by spending the night away (seven months/ 204 days) or jetting off on holiday together (ten months/ 298 days).一旦这六个月坚持住了,情侣会认为,这段关系开始稳定,并且开始一起过夜(7个月或204天),或者一起度假(10个月或298天)。The study also revealed that a third of Brits (33 per cent) will have their first conversation about their long-term future within a year, whilst the big commitment milestones of engagement rings, wedded bliss and babies all come later.研究还显示,三分之一(33%)的人会在一年之内,对他们长久的伴侣关系而进行第一次谈话,同时,重大的“里程碑”也将陆续发生:订婚戒指、婚姻的约定,还有生小孩。The average couple is said to get engaged after two years (743 days), married after just over three (1,190 days) and has a family after almost four years of dating (1,422 days).一般,夫妻们会在两年后(743天)订婚,三年后(1190天)结婚,并且在四年后(1422天)生小孩组建家庭。Finally, in terms of when people can expect to find love, the research found that 27 is the average age British daters meet their partners, with women more likely to meet them earlier in life at age 25 than men at 28.最后,至于人们什么时候能找到自己的另一半,研究表示,英国情侣们互见家长的平均年龄是27岁,而女性见家长的时间更早,约25岁,男性为28岁。 /201601/423389

  

  1.Conversations matter more than chiseled features.1.与欺骗人的特征相比,对话更重要。Dating in Los Angeles provides a fair share of ;slashers; (actor/model, musician/actor, actor/waiter), and plenty of people who are still relying on their good looks from high school to replace substantive conversations. It quickly became clear that I much preferred going out with an intelligent, clever guy than a hot one. I#39;ll take the brains over the body, any day.洛杉矶的约会能提供不少的;配对项;(演员配模特、音乐家配演员、演员配招待员),还有很多人仍(在相亲时)仰赖他们高中时期的好相貌,而无视意义重大的对话。很快我便明白了,比起身材好的男生,我更喜欢跟头脑好的聪明男生约会。不管是哪一天,我都更看重对方的头脑而非身材外貌。2.Being a woman with a great job is polarizing.2.拥有一份好工作的女性正在极化。But it weeds out the bad guys who are intimidated by your success and attracts the good ones.不过这也排除了被你事业成功吓呆了的不良对象,并吸引来优质男。3.It#39;s OK to walk away from something and not apologize for it.3.你并不用为自己逃避问题而道歉。I went out with plenty of men who seemed nervous or shy online thinking that maybe they were really great guys that I#39;d click with in person. But when we met, I was usually bored to tears. Feeling obliged to give them a shot anyway didn#39;t do either of us any favors.我同许多在网上看上去紧张或害羞的男性出去约会过,我想也许他们真的是不错的男性。我应该亲自去见见面。然而当我们碰上面,我总会无聊到眼泪都要流出来了。觉得无论如何都应该给他们一次机会这种想法,对我们双方都没多大帮助。4.There#39;s no such thing as becoming just friends.4.与相亲对象只做朋友,绝无可能。After going on a date where zero romantic attraction manifested, but the guy was seemingly interesting or cool, friends often said, ;Well maybe you guys can be friends!; Nope. That never happened -- and that#39;s fine! Got plenty of friends.赴约后,两人之间没有擦出任何恋爱火花,而对方看上去又属于有趣或酷酷的类型时,朋友们便老是说:;恩,也许你们能成为朋友!;不要。这绝不会发生。(而且也不需要!我有这么多朋友。)5.Talking about yourself is exhausting.5.谈论自己很费神。I much prefer to ask questions and listen. Explaining your own career trajectory over and over again feels more like an interview than it does a fun night out on the town.我更喜欢问对方问题并倾听。一次又一次地解释你自己的职业道路更像一场面试,比不上城里的一次欢快夜游。6.I got a new motto: life before love.6.我有了一句新格言:先享受人生再去爱。If you aren#39;t out there going on adventures, traveling, learning new things and ing new books, you won#39;t have much to talk to your date about. Always choose the experience. It will make you far more interesting.如果你没有出门冒险、旅游、学习新事物、读新书,你便不会有多少话题与约会对象谈论。总是选择去体验吧,它将让你更有趣。7.Reading between the lines is important.7.读懂话外音很重要。I quickly learned that lines like ;I just want to meet someone I can have fun with; and ;everyone takes this dating thing so seriously,; really mean ;I just want to have sex.; If that#39;s what you#39;re looking for, then great! If not, move along.当对方对我说;我只想见能一起愉快玩耍的人;或是;每个人对待约会都这么严肃;这样的话时,我很快就明白他们的真实意思是;我就想和你上床。;如果这是你在寻求的,那么太棒了!如果不是,那便转身离开吧。8.I have a really strong stomach.8.我承受力真的很强。I#39;m not talking 7-minute abs. Trusting your gut is one of the greatest superpowers that human women possess. When someone wrote something slightly off-color over text, it was usually just the tip of the iceberg. Seven-minute gut checks became the theme of online dating, and learning that my intuition was usually right was one of the best assurances I#39;ve ever had.我并不是在说七分钟练出腹肌。相信直觉是人类女性所拥有的最伟大超能力之一。当某些人写的内容稍微有点黄段子的意味时,这往往只是冰山一角。;七分钟直觉确认;成为了网络约会的一大主题,而我也知道了自己的第六感总没错,这一点是我目前最确定的事情之一。 /201511/411213

  Five dynasties were the five kingdoms established on the Central Plain and the ten states were all in the south of the Qinling Rang and Huihe River except the Northern Han. Meanwhile, there were other parallel administrations established by minorities tribes like Liao and the West Xia.五代是中原上的五个王朝,先后与之并存的十国除北汉外都在秦岭——淮河以南,其它与之并存的还有辽和西夏。Liao was a regime dominated by the Khitan. Its capital was Linhuangfu in Shangjing( south of present-day Bairin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), and its founder was a man called Yelu Abaoji(the Han name was Yi).辽国是中国历史上以契丹族为主体建立的王朝,都城上京临潢府(今内蒙古巴林左旗南),其创建者为耶律阿保机(汉名亿)。The Liao Dynasty had nine emperors and ruled for 210 years.辽国共历九帝,前后210年。Its territory reached the coast of the Northern Sea, the Eastern Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the east, the Jinshan (now the A#39;ertai Mountain) and Liusha (now the Bailongdui Desert in Xinjiang) in the west, the Kelulun, the E’erkun and the Selun’ge Rivers in the north, the southern side of the Outer Xing^nling Mountains in the northeast, the northern part bordered the Northern Shanxi, Baigou in Hebei Province and the northern part of Gansu in the south.其疆域东临北海、东海、黄海、渤海,西 至金山(今阿尔泰山)、流沙(今新疆白龙堆沙漠),北至克鲁伦河、鄂尔昆河、色楞格河流域,东北迄外兴安岭南麓,南接山西北部、河北白沟河及今甘肃北界。The Rising and Development of Liao:The Khitan Tartars were an old normadic nationality from the northern China.辽的兴起和发展:契丹族是中国古代北方地区的一个游牧民族,以放牧、打猎为生。They were first mentioned in historical records dating from the 4th year of Dengguo(389) in the Northern Wei period.历史文献上有关契丹族的确实记载,始于北魏登国四年(389)。They were located in Huang River(the Xar Moron River) valley and lived a nomadic life. The tribe was increasingly grown.主要活动在潢河(今西拉木伦河)一带。By the early Tang Dynasty, the then existing eight Khitan tribes formed an ally, having an army of 40 000 and was under the control of the Tang regime.唐朝初年,契丹8个部落组成部落联盟,拥兵四万,接受唐朝统辖。After the decline of the Tang, the Khitan Tartars frequently attacked its neighbours, captured people from other states and rapidly increased in power.唐朝衰落后,契丹族不断向外扩张,俘掠外族人口,实力大增。In the 2nd year of Zhenming of the Later Liang (916), Yelu Abaoji, the chief of the Khitan Tartars, declared himself emperor and named his state Khitan, after having defeated other tribes like Cige and Died.后梁贞明二年(916),契丹族首领耶律阿保机凭借强大的军事力量,击败了的剌葛、迭剌等人,在龙化州称天皇帝,国号契丹。Two years later, Yelu Abaoji, who was known as Emperor Taizu(the first emperor) of the Liao, set up his capital north of the Xar Moron River and named it Huangdu (imperial capital ; later called Shangjing).神册三年(918),辽太祖耶律阿保机在潢河以北正式建都城,称为皇都(后改称上京)。Before long, he conquered the Uygurs in Ganzhou and captured the Bohai.随后,降甘州回鹘,灭渤海国。In the 1st year of Huitong (947), Emperor Taizong of the Liao defeated the Later Jin and changed the name of his dynasty to the “Great Liao”.会同元年(947),辽太宗灭后晋,改国号大辽。In the 1st year of Tonghe (983), the Liao Emperor Shengzong, Yelu Longxu, revived the name Khitan.统和元年(983),辽圣宗耶律隆绪曾改国号契丹。Later in the 2nd year of Xianyong (1066), Emperor Daozong restored the name the “Great Liao”.以后辽道宗咸雍二年(1066),又恢复大辽国号。During the reign of Taizong of Liao, Liao acquired sixteen cities of Yanyun from Shi Jingtang and started from which it began to extend to the Central Plain.辽太宗耶律德光统治时期,辽国从石敬塘的手中得到了燕云十六州。以此为基础,辽开始了对中原地区的扩张。Yelu Deguang launched several attacks to conquer the Central Plain but had to retreat in facing the severe counterattacks from the people there.耶律德光数次对中原进兵,希望征整个中国,但因中原人民的反抗,使其计划搁浅下来。After Taizong of Liao, from Ruan, the Shizong(947 ?950) of Liao to Jing, AAuzong (951 ?969),the period witnessed the conflicts from within and the rulers did not turn their head to the Cen-tral Plain. The conflicts were settled till Xian,Jingzong (969 ?982) of Liao.在太宗之后,经历世宗阮(947 ~ 950)和穆宗璟(951 ~ 969)两代,辽的统治内部出现了激烈的纷争,直到景宗贤 (969 ~ 982)时,其统治才渐渐稳定下来。Jingzong was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, known as Shengzong, who co-ruled Liao with his mother, Empress Xiao. Xiao was an outstanding female statesman in history. In the fourth year of Shengzong (987), Liao launched war against Song and won the battle.景宗死后,其子12岁的耶律隆绪即位,是为辽圣宗。由于圣宗年龄尚小,所以由其母萧太后摄政,萧太后是辽历史上著名的女政治家,于圣宗统和四年(987)进 兵攻宋,大败宋军。From then on , Liao started their attack on the Song every year till the 22nd year of Shengzong , Liao army threatened the Chanzhou city and was offered to sign a compromise with Zhenzong of Song according to which the Song was forced to contribute to Liao silver and goods annually in return of the peace.此后,辽国连年发兵攻宋,至圣宗二十二年,辽国攻至澶州城下,与宋真宗签定了“澶渊之盟”,迫使宋朝年年向辽国进贡“岁币”,辽宋两国从此相对安定下来。Therefore a temporary peace was bought, and with the tributes from the Song, Liao became rich and strong and attained the height of power and splendor.辽圣宗依靠宋国的进贡,使辽的经济发展起来,此时辽国达到了历史上的鼎盛时期。Liao reached a stage of decline after Shengzong and Xingzong( 1031 ?1055).经过圣宗、兴宗(1031 ~1055)的盛世之后,辽国开始走向衰亡。In 1101, when Emperor of Tian Zuo came into power, Liao was progressively threatened by Jin of Nuzhen, their rising neighbor.公元1101年, 辽天柞帝即位,此时随着女真族的兴起,辽国的统治逐渐受到威胁。In 1115 Jin captured Huang Longfu, an important city of Liao. At the same time, Jin reached an agreement with Song, namely the “Haishang Agreement” to form a joint force to fight against Liao.公元1115年, 金兵攻占辽国重镇黄龙府,随后又与宋朝订立“海上之盟”,共同攻辽。In several years, Jin seized most of Liao’s territory including Uaoyangfu in Dongjing. In the 5th year of Baoda (1125), Emperor Tianzuo was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty to an end.金兵在几年的时间里,占领了包括东京辽阳府在内的大部分辽国土地,保大五年(1125),辽天祚帝被金军俘虏,辽国自此灭亡。In the 9th year of Tianhui (1131) of the Jin, Yelu Dashi, a minister of the former Liao, reestablished the Liao in the Chuhe valley which became known as the Western Liao.金天会九年(1131),原辽国大臣耶律大石在楚河 流域重建国家,仍沿用辽国号,史称西辽。The Economy and Political System of Liao : In politics, the Liao adopted a differential ruling system. That is, different systems were applied to people from different cultures and economies in different areas.辽的社会经济和政治:辽国采用“因俗而治”的统治制度,其特点是根据不同地域、各民族不同的发展水平,而制定独特的统治制度。The important ones were the tribal system, the slavery system, the Bohai system, and the feudal system of the Han people. Officials were divided into two groups according to where they came from (the north or the south).Corresponding administration systems were set up for each area.其内容包括有部族制、奴隶制、渤海制和汉族封建制,采用南、北两套官制进行管理。“官分南、北,以国制治契丹,以汉制待汉人”(《辽史?百官志》)。The Khitan administrative system, called the orthodox system, was applied to Khitan officials who were called northern officials, while the Han administrative system was applied to the Han officials, who were called southern officials.“国制”是指契丹官制,统称北面官,汉制官职统称南面官。北面官地位优于南面官。北南两面官的区别还在于管理的范围不同。Because of different customs and levels of economic development, the northern officials mainly governed the Khitan Tartars and other nomadic peoples while the southern officials took charge of agriculture mainly in areas where the Han people resided.北面官主要管理北面的契丹人和其他游牧民族,南面官主管南面从事农业经济的汉族等。As the Liao Dynasty was founded by the Khitan, the northern officials were superior in status to their southern counterparts. But the southern administrative system was actually the feudal system used to be practiced in the Central Plain states.北面官制是在契丹氏族部落制基础上发展来的一套官制。因此,北面官职多保留部落联盟制的痕迹。辽南面官制实际上是从中原王朝移植过来的制度。The northern administration system embodied the old trace of tribe influence, while the southern administrative of Liao was an imitation after the Tang system although it was not so perfect as the latter.最初,辽太祖仿唐制在中央设立三省,但是当时还未完全具备后来南面官三省的职能。In particular it included a department “Han,er Si”,which was in charge of the Han affairs with Han officials.朝中另设汉儿司,主管汉人事务,官员为总知汉儿司事,由汉族大臣担任。After the Liao conquered the sixteen prefectures in the Yanyun area, this system was further improved with the assimilation to the Chinese governing system.辽朝得燕云十六州后,对中原制度进一步吸收,汉制逐渐完备。The Liao Dynasty went through different stages of economic development. In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and robbery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽代社会经济的发展经过几个不同的阶段,前期由于国力主要用于向外扩张, 采取奴隶制的掠夺式经济,使辽初经济发展较为缓慢,甚至对某些地区的经济造成破坏。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong that the Liao managed to institute feudal reform.直到辽圣宗时期,辽朝的经济才有一个较大的发展,这无疑是封建化改革的结果。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝统治者管理经济的办法与政治制度相同,也采取“因俗而治”的方针。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area due to its adaptation to the reality.由于这一方针适应当时社会经济的发展,因此北方社会经济在这一时期处于上升阶段。The Liao economy was divided into three zones: the fishing-hunting zone, the nomadic zone and the agricultural zone.从生产性质上划分,辽代经济大体可划分为三大区域:渔猎区、牧区和农区。The fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan Tartars9 area between the Huang River(Xar Moron) and Tuhe rivers, and the Nuzhen peopled area in the northeast and so on.以渔猎为基本生产方式的是居住在潢河(西拉木仑河)、土河之间的契丹族以及东北部女真族等。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities.以畜牧业为基本生产方式的是北方草原各民族。The agricultural zone referred to the southern area where the Han lived and the eastern area where the Bohai people lived.以农业为主要生产方式的是南部地区的汉族以及东部渤海人。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between different nationalities and promoted a higher level of economic development.三个地区的社会组织形态融为一体,加速了相互之间的交流,推动了辽代经济的发展。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy and directed other economic zones to step into the feudal economic system with different paces.早已进人封建社会的南部汉族地区经济,在辽代起主导作用,使牧区、渔猎区在不同的基础上,以不同的步伐向封建经济过渡。 /201602/421851

  Prevail of Taoism and Buddhism道教与佛教的盛行During the Northern and Southern dynasties, since most emperors believed in it, Buddhism grew rapidly despite the demolition incidents.南北朝期间,尽管存在拆除毁坏,佛教仍然发展迅速。Buddhism found a receptive audience in China, while the influence of Confucianism waned.当儒家思想的影响逐渐减弱时,佛教在中国被群众广为接受。During Northern Wei period, the rulers were the most generous patrons in both the north and south.北魏期间,帝王们是南北朝时期最慷慨的资助者。They took Buddhism as a nationwide religion in order to enforce his dominion.他们将佛教看作国教以加强自己的统治。In the north, large amounts of Buddhist caves and temples were built.在北方,佛教石窟与僧人寺庙被大量建立。Mogao Grottoes in today’s Dunhuang, Yungang Grottoes in Datong and Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang were three flourishing centers of Buddhist culture in its glory.今天敦煌的莫高窟,大同的云冈石窟和洛阳的龙门石窟是佛教灿烂的历史中三大繁盛的中心地区。Buddhist monastic establishment grew rapidly at that time.佛教修道院在那个时候也被迅速建立。By 477 there were reportedly 6478 Buddhist temples and 77258 monks and nuns in the north.据传,到477年,北方出现了6478座寺庙和77528为僧人尼姑。The south was said to have 2846 temples and 82700 clerics some decades later.据称南方在几十年后有2846座寺庙和82700位传教士。Emperor Wu of Liang had even contributed himself to experience as a Buddhist disciple in a temple for three times.凉武王甚至曾三次亲自到寺庙中体验佛教学徒的生活。In Jiankang (present Nanjing city in Jiangsu Province), Buddhist temples added up to 500 with 10000 monks.在建康(今江苏南京),寺庙数量增至500座,其中共有10000名僧人。Women turned to Buddhism as ily as men.女人和男人一样乐意投身于佛教。Originally one philosophy school of dozens schools in the Spring and Autumn Period, Taoism grew up into a religion in the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25—220 AD).道教起初是春秋时期拥有一些学院的哲学学派,东汉(公元25——220年)末年它成为了一种宗教。At first, it only gain the popularity among civilians and during the Jin Dynasty (265—420) it became a prevalence in the upper society一开始,它只在平民中受到欢迎,晋朝(265——420)时它在上层社会得到广泛流行,and in the succession of Northern Qi and Northern Liang, Taoism gained good graces of the ruler and once play a critical role in court.在之后的北齐和北凉道教得到了当权者的恩惠并一度在朝堂之上扮演重要角色。Taoist activities and ceremonies were held for worship purpose.道教活动和仪式被用来祭拜天神。 /201510/398425

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