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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月20日 17:22:42
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Germany and the euro德国和欧元You Kant do that请依法办事Many Germans fear that the European Central Bank is not on their side很多德国人担心欧洲央行不是他们这一阵营的HORST SEEHOFER, premier of Bavaria, sums up German attitudes to the European Central Bank (ECB). Based in Frankfurt, but run by Mario Draghi, an Italian, the ECB said on September 4th that it would cut its interest rate to 0.05% and start buying asset-backed securities from banks to get them to lend. By opening the money tap, taking on debt and buying “junk”, Mr Seehofer told Bild, Germanys biggest tabloid, the ECB frightens people. “It must be our job to criticise these policies.”巴伐利亚州州长霍斯特·泽霍费尔向欧洲央行(ECB)表明了德国的态度。坐落于法兰克福,但如今却被意大利人马里奥·德拉基掌舵的ECB,在9月4日公开表示,将基准利率下调至0.05%并从放贷购买资产抵押债券。泽霍费尔向图片报透露,ECB借着开通资金流、承担债务和购入“低档债券”的方式来恐吓民众。他表示“我们的职责就是批评这些政策。”Like others on the centre-right, Mr Seehofer frets that a new anti-euro party, the Alternative for Germany, will poach voters by bashing the ECB. The Alternative has just got into its first state parliament and may get into two more on September 14th. But scepticism about the ECB is growing across the country. Hans-Werner Sinn, boss of Munichs Ifo Institute and an economist, echoes Mr Seehofer: the ECB has “cut interest rates by too much”; and it is not authorised to buy bonds “as this is a fiscal and not a monetary-policy measure. Such a policy would be at the expense of European taxpayers, who would have to pay for the losses incurred by the ECB.”与其他中右翼党派一样,泽霍费尔同样忧心德国新选择党—一个新的反欧元党派—会借机抨击ECB来拉拢选民。而新选择党才刚刚成功进入第一个州议会,在9月14日新选项党还可能会成功进入另外两个。但是ECB质疑论正在这个城市大肆传播。慕尼黑经济研究所所长汉斯-维尔纳·辛恩也在泽霍费尔之后随声附和:ECB已经“降低基准利率太多”;而且ECB并未得到购买债券的授权,因为这并不是一个货币政策措施而是一个财政法令。而这样的一个政策将以欧洲的纳税人为代价,让他们不得不为ECB引起的损失买单。Mainstream views in Germany are diverging from those elsewhere in the euro zone and in Anglo-Saxon countries. The world outside Germany is afraid of deflation. Germans, however, worry that cheap money could lead eventually to inflation. This may be surprising, since prices in the euro zone are rising by only 0.3% a year, far below the ECBs 2% target. But inflation fears have been etched into the German psyche since the hyperinflation of 1922-23.现今德国国内的主流观点便是与那些欧元区的其他国家和盎格鲁-撒克逊国家分道扬镳。除德国之外,全世界都惧怕通货紧缩。然而,德国人忧心的却是宽松货币政策最终可能引发通货膨胀。由于欧元区的价格一直在不断上涨,每年涨幅仅为0.3%,这相较于ECB2%的目标已经是很低了,在这种状况下,德国人的此种担忧让人颇感意外。但是自从经历过1922-1923年的恶性通货膨胀之后,德国人对通货膨胀的恐惧已经深入骨髓。Many are cross that cheap money is crushing interest rates on savings accounts and capital life-insurance policies, a common form of retirement planning. Real returns on such savings are laughable, just when greying Germans need them. Low rates may boost shares and property, but ordinary Germans shun such assets. One argument they use against low rates, indeed, is that they create asset bubbles.也有许多人持相反的观点,他们认为宽松货币政策正压制储蓄账户和资本人寿保险政策的基准利率。这种储蓄的实际回报效果却让人觉得可笑,仅仅是在头发花白的德国人需要之时才会出现。低利率可能会刺激股票和房地产行业,但是普通的德国人还是会避开这两样资产。而实际上这些普通人用来反对低利率的一种说法便是,这样做会引起资产泡沫。But the roots of German scepticism are more fundamental, argues Marcel Fratzscher, head of the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, in a forthcoming book, “The Germany Illusion”. Anglo-Saxon economists are guided by the utilitarian philosophy of John Stuart Mill or Jeremy Bentham, asking merely if a policy works. Germans side with Immanuel Kant, believing that nothing works except through law, and are horrified when the ECB strays from its narrow mandate.但是,马塞尔·弗雷兹策尔—柏林德国经济研究所所长—在他即将出版的书《德国的幻象》中表示,德国质疑论的来源更加坚实。盎格鲁-撒克逊那群仅要求这政策能奏效的经济学家们,皆以约翰·斯图尔特·密尔或是杰里米·边沁的功利主义哲学为指南。那些拥护伊曼努尔·康德的德国人,坚信任何事情只有借以法律手段才能奏效,而且在ECB打破自身的局限颁布条令之时,他们也被震惊了。Germans felt it was doing this in 2012 when Mr Draghi announced that the ECB would, under certain conditions, buy the bonds of euro countries in crisis. Outside Germany, this is considered the most effective step in the euro crisis to date. Inside Germany, it is seen as illegal. The ECB would indirectly finance governments when it may only manage the money supply, ruled the German constitutional court in February (though it referred the issue up to the European Court of Justice).当德拉基宣布ECB会在某些情况下购买身处危机中的欧元区国家债券之时,德国人意识到ECB曾在2012年就这样做了。在德国之外,这种举措被认为是迄今为止在欧元危机之中最奏效的一步。而在德国国内,这种行为却被认为是违法的。当ECB仅能控制货币供应之时,它会间接的向政府融资,对此,德国宪法法院已在二月份作出裁决。Buying asset-backed securities from banks is, by this logic, another step in the wrong direction. Worse, Germans fear that it could lead to “quantitative easing”: printing money to buy bonds. “Breaking the rules destroys trust,” warns Ralph Brinkhaus, a Bundestag member from the centre-right party of Chancellor Angela Merkel. And it sends the wrong message to crisis countries, he adds, by reducing the pressure on them to reform.按照这种“德国认为是违法的”的逻辑,那么ECB从购买资产抵押债券也是在错误方向上的另外一步了。更糟的是,德国人害怕的是,ECB的这种做法会导致“量化宽松”:也就是印钞买债券。德国总理默克尔所属基督教民主联盟籍议员Ralph Brinkhaus 提出警告 “打破规则摧毁信任”。而且他补充道,这些做法通过减少改革的压力,给那些身处欧元危机中的国家发送了错误的信息。 /201409/328760

Those planets are all going to be so hot, and you cant develop something as complex as life.那些星球都太热了,如生命这类复杂事物根本无法在那里诞生。Scientists have gone back to the drawing board, looking to find worlds capable of supporting life, small rocky planets like earth.科学家们重新开始了寻找,可持生命的世界的工作,他们的目标是类似地球的小型岩石行星。We dont know that life has to evolve on the surface of small rocket planets. But we know it did once here on earth. And so its a reasonable place to start the search.我们不知道生命是不是,只有在岩石行星上才能出现,但我们知道它在地球上诞生了,所以在这种地方开展搜索是很明智的。Earth is important, because we know that this little planet had everything it needed to create life. And if a distant world has similar conditions, theres at least a possibility life could emerge there too.地球很重要,因为我们知道,她刚好拥有一切创造生命所需的,如果一个遥远世界也有类似的条件,那么那里至少有可能也出现生命。If you were to give a biologist a piece of paper and say write down on every line something you need for life.如果你给生物学家一张纸,并让他列出他认为生命所需的东西。Hell say you need energy source, you need oxygen, you need water, you need carbon, you need organic compounds, you need amino acids, you need all the stuff.他们会说那需要能源,氧气,水,碳,有机化合物,氨基酸等等所有的一切。There is a long list of factors that make our earth special and perfectly suited for life. But the most important is its distance from our energy source, the sun.有一长串的东西使我们的地球与众不同并且适宜生命存在,但最重要的是地球和我们能量来源的距离—太阳。At 93 million miles away the earth is at just the right place for water to exist as a liquid. So why is liquid water important?离地球9300万英里远,地球所处的位置刚刚好,使得水能以液态形式存在,那么为什么液态水这么重要呢?Imagine a world, so much hotter than the earth, there are no oceans, no liquid water all on its surface.想象一个比地球热得多的地方,那里地表上根本没有海洋,没有液态水。Such a place would be like a desert. Without water, there is nothing to let the grains in sand interact.这样的地方会像一个沙漠,没有水,就没有东西可以使这些沙粒相互作用。And in the same way without water, there is nothing to allow the atoms, the carbon and oxygen, and trace elements to form the molecules that would give rise to the chemistry of life.同样的没有水就没有东西可以使原子,碳,氧气,和各种元素形成可产生生命的化学反应的分子。On the other hand, on a world much colder than the earth, water can only exist as ice, and we have another problem.但另一方面,在一个比地球冷得多的地方,水只能以冰的形式存在,这就产生了另一个问题。This frozen block of sand has all the grains in sand locked together. They cant move around and interact.这个冻住的沙块有许多被困住的沙粒,它们无法移动并相互作用。Just the same way that on a frozen world, the atoms in molecules cant move around and interact to from the chemistry necessary for life.同样在一个冰冻的世界,原子和分子无法移动或相互作用,来形成生命必须的化学反应。But if temperatures and conditions are just right like here on earth, you get liquid water.但如果温度和其他条件都很合适,比如在地球上就能有液态水。 译文属201512/416969

  

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  Should digital monopolies be broken up?电子垄断需要被打破吗?European moves against Google are about protecting companies, not consumers欧洲人反抗谷歌的运动实为保护自身企业,而非消费者ALTHOUGH no company is mentioned by name, it is very clear which American internet giant the European Parliament has in mind in a resolution that has been doing the rounds in the run-up to a vote on November 27th. One draft calls for “unbundling search engines from other commercial services” to ensure a level playing field for European companies and consumers. This is the latest and most dramatic outbreak of Googlephobia in Europe.虽然没有提及任何公司的名字,我们非常清楚哪些美国互联网巨头在欧洲议会中已经作为讨论对象,被放在于11月27日实行了几轮的投票决议中。有一项草案呼吁“解除搜索引擎和其他商业务的捆绑“,以确保欧洲企业和消费者进行公平竞争。这是欧洲谷歌恐惧症最新和最戏剧性的暴动。Europes former competition commissioner, Joaquín Almunia, brokered a series of settlements this year requiring Google to give more prominence to rivals shopping and map services alongside its own in search results. But MEPs want his successor, Margrethe Vestager, to take a firmer line. Hence the calls to dismember the company.欧洲前竞争委员会专员阿尔穆尼亚,今年促成了一系列内容的解决,要求谷歌在竞争对手的购物和地图务方面提供更多的显著内容,并将其内容一并放入自己的搜索结果中。不过,欧洲议会议员希望他的继任者玛格丽特采取更加坚定的策略。因此呼吁分割公司。The parliament does not actually have the power to carry out this threat. But it touches on a question that has been raised by politicians from Washington to Seoul and brings together all sorts of issues from privacy to industrial policy. How worrying is the dominance of the internet by Google and a handful of other firms?议会实际上并不具备实施这一威胁的能力。不过,议会倒是已经触及到了从美国华盛顿到韩国首尔的政客们所提出的问题,并汇集了各种争议,从私密政策到产业政策。互联网由谷歌和少数其他公司占主导的现状是多么令人担忧的现状啊?Whos afraid of the big bad search engine?谁害怕这个巨大的坏蛋搜索引擎呢?Google (whose executive chairman, Eric Schmidt, is a member of the board of The Economists parent company) has 68% of the market of web searches in America and more than 90% in many European countries. Like Facebook, Amazon and other tech giants, it benefits from the network effects whereby the popularity of a service attracts more users and thus becomes self-perpetuating. It collects more data than any other company and is better at mining those data for insights. Once people start using Googles search (and its e-mail, maps and digital storage), they rarely move on. Small advertisers find switching to another platform too burdensome to bother.谷歌(其执行董事长埃里克·施密特,是《经济学人》的母公司董事会的成员)具有在美国网络搜索市场的68 %和在许多欧洲国家90%以上的份额。像脸书 ,亚马逊等科技巨头,它们从网络效应中获利,由此一个务的普及,吸引更多的用户,从而自我延续。谷歌收集比其他任何公司更多的数据,其探索这些数据的洞察力更好。一旦人们开始使用谷歌的搜索(以及其电子邮件,地图和数字存储),他们很少继续前进搜索。小广告客户找到切换到另一个平台则过于繁琐费心。Google is clearly dominant, then; but whether it abuses that dominance is another matter. It stands accused of favouring its own services in search results, making it hard for advertisers to manage campaigns across several online platforms, and presenting answers on some search pages directly rather than referring users to other websites. But its behaviour is not in the same class as Microsofts systematic campaign against the Netscape browser in the late 1990s: there are no e-mails talking about “cutting off” competitors “air supply”. Whats more, some of the features that hurt Googles competitors benefit its consumers. Giving people flight details, dictionary definitions or a map right away saves them time. And while advertisers often pay hefty rates for clicks, users get Googles service for nothing—rather as plumbers and florists fork out to be listed in Yellow Pages which are given to ers gratis, and nightclubs charge men steep entry prices but let women in free.谷歌明显占主导地位,但是否滥用这一优势则是另一回事。它被指控在搜索结果中偏袒自己的务,使得广告商在多个网络平台管理活动变得困难,并提出了某些搜索页面直接的,而不是向用户推荐其他网站。但其行为和微软公司在20世纪90年代末发起的反对美国网景公司浏览器的系统活动是同样的性质:没有电子邮件谈论“切断”竞争对手的“气源” 。更重要的是,一些特点伤害谷歌的竞争对手从消费者中获益。给人们提供航班信息,字典定义或地图能够马上节省了人们的时间。虽然广告商往往付高的点击率,用户可以免费得到谷歌的务——而非水管工和花商掏钱被列在给读者免费阅读的黄页上,并且夜总会会给男人们提高入门价格,但让女人免费进入。There are also good reasons why governments should regulate internet monopolies less energetically than offline ones. First, barriers to entry are lower in the digital realm. It has never been easier to launch a new online product or service: consider the rapid rise of Instagram, WhatsApp or Slack. Building a rival infrastructure to a physical incumbent is far more expensive (just ask telecoms operators or energy firms), and as a result there is much less competition (and more need for regulation) in the real world. True, big firms can always buy upstart rivals (as Facebook did with Instagram and WhatsApp, and Google did with Waze, Apture and many more). But such acquisitions then encourage the formation of even more start-ups, creating even more competition for incumbents.也有很好的理由来解释为什么政府要较少精力充沛地去规范互联网垄断而非下线的活动。首先,在数字领域进入门槛较低。它从未如此简单推出一个新的在线产品或务:考虑Instagram,WhatsApp或Slack的迅速崛起。建设一个对手基础设施到物理依靠更为昂贵(只是要求电信运营商或能源公司),并因此有比在现实世界中少得多的竞争(需要更多的监管)。诚然,大公司可以随时购买新的竞争对手(如脸书使用Instagram和WhatsApp,谷歌利用Waze,Apture以及其他更多的软件使用等等)。但这样的收购则鼓励更多的创业企业的形成,从而创造更激烈的竞争。Second, although switching from Google and other online giants is not costless, their products do not lock customers in as Windows, Microsofts operating system, did. And although network effects may persist for a while, they do not confer a lasting advantage: consider the decline of MySpace, or more recently of Orkut, Googles once-dominant social network in Brazil, both eclipsed by Facebook—itself threatened by a wave of messaging apps.其次,尽管从谷歌和其他网络巨头的转换不是没有代价的,他们的产品不锁定网页里的客户或是微软的操作系统。并且,虽然网络效应可能会持续一段时间,他们并没有赋予持久的优势:考虑MySpace的衰落,还有最近的Orkut,谷歌曾经在巴西社交网络占领导地位,都是由Facebook而致衰落-而其本身也受到一波消息应用程序的威胁。Finally, the lesson of recent decades is that technology monopolists (think of IBM in mainframes or Microsoft in PC operating systems) may be dominant for a while, but they are eventually toppled when they fail to move with the times, or when new technologies expand the market in unexpected ways, exposing them to new rivals. Facebook is eating into Googles advertising revenue. Despite the success of Android, Googles mobile platform, the rise of smartphones may undermine Google: users now spend more time on apps than on the web, and Google is gradually losing control of Android as other firms build their own mobile ecosystems on top of its open-source underpinnings. So far, no company has remained information technologys top dog from one cycle to the next. Sometimes former monopolies end up with a lucrative franchise in a legacy area, as Microsoft and IBM have. But the kingdoms they rule turn out to be only part of a much larger map.最后,近数十年来的经验教训是,技术的垄断者(认为主机中IBM或是PC操作系统中的微软)可能一时占据主导地位,但他们未能与时并进,或是当新技术以意想不到的方式扩大自己的市场,将其暴露给新的竞争对手,最终只能走向崩塌。脸书正在蚕食谷歌的广告收入。尽管安卓,谷歌的移动平台出现成功,智能手机的兴起可能会破坏谷歌的地位:用户现在花更多的时间在应用程序上而非网络,并且谷歌正在逐渐失去对安卓的控制,因为其他企业正在开源的基础上建立自己的移动生态系统。到目前为止,没有一家公司一直保持信息技术的顶峰,并从一个周期维持到下一个周期。有时候,前者垄断结束了在传统领域利润丰厚的专营权,微软和IBM都有这种情况。但他们统治的王国最终变成是一个更大的地图的一部分。Looking after their own照顾好自己的业务The European Parliaments Googlephobia looks a mask for two concerns, one worthier than the other. The lamentable one, which American politicians pointed out this week, is a desire to protect European companies. Among the loudest voices lobbying against Google are Axel Springer and Hubert Burda Media, two German media giants. Instead of attacking successful American companies, Europes leaders should ask themselves why their continent has not produced a Google or a Facebook. Opening up the EUs digital services market would do more to create one than protecting local incumbents.欧洲议会的谷歌恐惧症查找两个关注热点,其中一个比另一个更具有价值。可悲的是,美国的政治家在本周指出,其实际是以保护欧洲企业的愿望。其中呼声最高的反对谷歌的游说是阿克塞尔·施普林格和布尔达传媒集团,两家德国媒体巨头。相比攻击成功的美国公司,欧洲领导人应该反问自己,为什么他们大陆还没有产生一个谷歌或脸书的公司。开放欧盟的数字务市场会做更多的创建一个强大的公司,而非仅仅保护本地老牌。The good reason for worrying about the internet giants is privacy. It is right to limit the ability of Google and Facebook to use personal data: their services should, for instance, come with default settings guarding privacy, so companies gathering personal information have to ask consumers to opt in. Europes politicians have shown more interest in this than American ones. But to address these concerns, they should regulate companies behaviour, not their market power. Some clearer thinking by European politicians would benefit the continents citizens.担心互联网巨头的一个重要原因是隐私。限制谷歌和脸书使用个人数据的权限是正确的。他们的务应该做到配备默认设置保护隐私权,因此公司收集的个人信息要问消费者自己的选择。欧洲的政客在这方面表现出比美国更多的兴趣。但要解决这些问题,就应该规范企业的行为,不是他们的市场力量。欧洲一些政客更清晰的思维将有利于欧洲大陆的公民。译者:肖登怡译文属译生译世 /201412/346874

  Asia: Banyan: Knife-edge lives亚洲:榕树:刀口余生The effects of discrimination against transgender Asians are huge, if hidden.在亚洲,变性人遭受严重歧视,却鲜为人知Its a matter of survival, one Indian transgender woman explains: never make eye contact with anyone potentially threatening.对于那些可能危及你安全的人,眼神交流都该避免,一位印度的变性女性解释道,因为性命攸关。Yet in the warren of alleys, workshops and tenements that is Old Delhi, Mallika, with a defiant gleam, is having none of it.然而,对于生活在旧德里的Malika来说,无论是巷陌闹市、工坊商店还是简陋公寓,尽管眼里闪烁着一丝不甘,她可真的与路人毫无眼神交流了。Until recently neighbours used to mock her and denounce her as a danger to their children.不久前,邻居还奚落,甚至告发Malika,认为她威胁到了他们的孩子。With police connivance, they pressured her to leave.在警察的默许之下,邻居甚至逼迫她Malika搬家。But then SPACE, an NGO working with transgender people, took up her cause.还好,致力于帮助变性人的非政府组织SPACE随后帮Malika解了围。It taught Mallika her rights, and engaged the whole area in discussions, warning neighbours as well as the police that discrimination against trans or “third gender” people was illegal, and that prosecutions and fines would follow.它让Malika明白自身的权利,组织整个社区一同协商,警告邻居和警察——歧视变性人和“第三性”人可是违法的,将面临起诉与罚款。Now, Mallika says, her street has stopped mocking her, and she can go about “full of attitude”.Mallika说,现在街坊都不敢再奚落她了,而她也终于可以“昂首挺胸”地上街了。“It’s them who don’t dare look at me,” she boasts.她得意地说,“现在可是他们不敢正眼看我了。”There are 9m-9.5m transgender people in Asia and the Pacific, according to an estimate by Sam Winter of Curtin University in Australia, equivalent to 0.3% of the population.根据澳大利亚科廷大学的山姆·温特估计,约有900-950万变性人生活在亚太地区,占人口总数的0.3%。Others say the figures could be much higher.一些人认为,可能还不止这个数。In some countries, in some respects, their life is getting better.在一些国家,变性人在某些方面的确生活得越来越好。Courts or governments in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan have all recognised transgender people as a legal category and defended their rights to a certain extent.孟加拉国、印度、尼泊尔和巴基斯坦都承认了变性人的法律地位,并且在一定程度上保护他们的权利。A group of Muslim clerics in Pakistan recently declared that it was haram to persecute them.在巴基斯坦,一群穆斯林教士宣称,迫害变性人是一种暴行。Singapore has allowed hospitals to perform sex changes since the 1970s and formally legalised trans marriages (although not gay ones) in 1996.而新加坡自20世纪70年代就允许人们去医院接受变性手术,并且在1996年就认可变性婚姻(尽管同性恋婚姻还是违法)。Yet discrimination remains horrific.然而,变性人仍面临着十分严重的歧视。Transgender people are often the targets of violence, as a UNDP report highlighted last year.去年,一份UNDP的报告曾明确指出,变性人经常遭受暴力迫害。In China, the attackers are often relatives of the victim.在中国,施暴者多为受害人的亲属。One survey in Australia reported that three-fifths of trans men (ie, people who were deemed female at birth but now identify as male) suffer abuse from their partners.一份澳大利亚调查指出,五分之三的变性人(比如出生时是女性现在变性为了男性)遭受伴侣虐待。And in Fiji 40% of trans women have been raped.在斐济,40%变性女性曾遭受强暴。School dropout rates are invariably high, with an 85% rate among trans girls at secondary school surveyed in Vietnam.变性人的辍学率一直居高不下。据调查显示,在越南,85%的变性女孩于中学辍学。There are problems of getting work even in relatively tolerant societies: in Hong Kong, trans people have an unemployment rate four times the territory’s average.即使在对变性人相对包容的社会,变性人仍然很难找到工作。在香港,变性人失业率是地区平均值的四倍。Trans people are often stressed and suffer high levels of mental ill-health, yet the stigma makes it hard for them to find help.变性人大多饱受严重心理疾病折磨,但在社会偏见的影响下,他们很难向外界寻求帮助。Some resort to selling sex, making them vulnerable to arrest, violence and disease.一些变性人走投无路之下只好从事性工作,可这却让他们更容易被逮捕,遭受暴力骚扰和感染疾病。(Almost a quarter of trans sex workers surveyed in Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, were HIV positive. )譬如,在巴布亚新几内亚的首都莫尔斯比港,四分之一的受访性工作者感染了艾滋病。Trans people are often targeted for harassment by the authorities under public-nuisance and vagrancy laws, too.政府人员常常以妨害公共利益罪和流浪罪之名找变性人的麻烦。If jailed, they are often beaten up by fellow prisoners.变性人一旦入狱,他们经常会遭到其他狱犯拳脚相向。All this is despite long traditions of relative tolerance for transgender people in many Asian countries.尽管在许多亚洲国家存在着对变性人相对包容的悠久传统。In India, for instance, hijras, a category of men who dress as women, many of them castrated, have a certain standing.譬如,在印度,有一群打扮如女性的男性群体海吉拉斯,他们大多都接受过阉割,在社会上有一定地位。They are thought to derive spiritual power from their sexual status, and so can bestow blessings or curses.人们认为他们能从其性别身份获得精神力量,从而赋予他人祝福或诅咒。They sing and dance at weddings. Failure to pay for their (often unbidden) attendance risks misfortune.他们常在婚礼上又唱又跳,虽然经常不请自来,但如果主人不给他们出场费,那可就有可能因此而遭受不幸。译文属译生译世201610/472749Saudi Arabias women drivers沙特女司机Ovarian issue卵巢问题?Will Saudi women ever be allowed behind the wheel of a car?沙特的女性能获得开车权吗?WHEN a group of Saudi women first took to the kingdoms roads to flout its ban on female drivers, they publicised their protest by fax and cassette. The 47 participants suffered fines, travel bans, social ostracism and, in some cases, the loss of government jobs. The ban itself, 23 years and many protests later, remains. But much else has changed.当第一次一群沙特女同志占据王国之路来嘲笑禁止女性司机这一法令时,她们通过传真和录音机来将她们的抗议公之于众。那47位参与者遭到罚款、旅行禁令、社会排斥异己在某些情况下,失去了政府部门工作。这条法令,在历经23年并遭到无数次反抗之后,如今仍然保留着。但是很多东西早已改变。The campaigners behind a drive-along protest scheduled for October 26th have put it on Twitter, Facebook and a slick website. Their petition demanding that the government issue driving licences to women has gathered close to 17,000 signatures. A call for women to upload s of themselves driving has aly gathered dozens of clips. The footage of headscarved ladies navigating suburban traffic may scarcely be thrilling, but some have scored over 100,000 web viewings.策划10月26日单独驾驶抗议的活动者们已经将这一禁令发布到推特,脸谱以及一个热门网站上。她们要求政府发给女性驾照的请愿书上集齐了1.7万人的签名;号召女性上传自己驾驶的视频也被点击了无数次,一个戴头巾妇女通过郊区交通的脚本也许不会让人兴奋,但一些已经拥有超过1万的浏览量。For the first time, too, women have allies in government. Earlier this year King Abdullah named 30 female members to the previously all-male Shura Council, the royally-appointed proto-parliament. Three of the new women in it have voiced open support for an end to the driving ban.女性在政府拥有同盟者这也是第一次。今年早些时日,Abdullah国王指定30位女性参加了以前全是男性成员的舒拉国会,该国会是皇家指定的第一国会。其中三个新的女性成员公开表示持停止驾驶禁令。But the campaigns opponents have changed tactics, too. Official monitors have blocked its website. Tweeters in favour of the ban, derided by campaigners in the kingdom as “eggs” for leaving blank the oval space for their own portrait that the messaging service provides, are putting out reams of negative comment. Some have sought to dampen support for women wanting to drive by sping false rumours of an imminent government move to lift the ban.但是活动者的对手们也改变了战术。政府监控人员已经封锁了网站。持此项禁令的推特用户发布了大量的负面。他们曾被抗议者们嘲讽为鸡蛋,为了自己存储转发业务提供的肖像画留下椭圆空白。有些人就在探索着通过散播假的谣言譬如政府在迫切的推行禁令等,去抑制那些持女性驾车的说法。More traditional foes of change have also been active. On October 23rd a group of 200-odd clerics gathered outside the royal court to denounce what they described as a “conspiracy” to put women behind the wheel. Last month Sheikh Salah al-Luhaydan, a well-known cleric who also practises psychology, claimed on a popular Saudi website that it has been scientifically proved that driving “affects the ovaries” and leads to clinical disorders in the children of women who are foolish enough to drive.更传统一些的变革对手也很活跃。10月23日,一组人数为200的牧师人员聚集在王朝外,指责他们所谓的持女性驾驶的同谋。一位知名的牧师Sheikh Salah al-Luhaydan,他同样也实践心理学,上个月,他在沙特一个很流行网站上声称,已经被科学明的是:驾驶“影响卵巢”并导致那些愚蠢的驾驶女人们的孩子临床障碍。译者 叶荣芳 译文属译生译世 /201507/388297You okay, Don?你还好吗,唐?Sorry,Yael.Ive been having trouble sleeping lately.抱歉,我最近睡眠不好。Have you tried thinking warm thoughts about your handsand feet?你有没有想办法暖手暖脚呢?Uh,No. Why would I wanna do that?没有,我为什么要那样做?Because it could help you fall asleep. 因为那样可以帮助你入睡。See, when were fallingasleep, the body naturally cools down. 想象一下,当你睡着的时候,身体就会自然降温。To make this happen, blood flows from the bodys coreout to the legs, arms, hands and feet. 要做到这一点,血液就会从身体的中心流向腿,胳膊,手和脚。This makes the central part of the body cooler and makesthe hands and feet warmer.这样身体的中心部分就会降低温度,使手和脚暖和起来。OK. But what does that have to do with thinking about my hands and feet?哦,但是那和我想到手和脚有什么关系呢?Well, for some people, the natural cooling-off process doesnt work the way it should. 对有些人来说,这个自然降温的过程无法正常进行。But sleepresearchers have found that you can sort of kick-start the process by imagining that your handsand feet are becoming warmer.睡眠研究人员发现,我们可以启动这个过程,通过想象自己的手和脚变暖。You mean that if I think about holding my hands over a campfire or something like that, I cantrick my body into making the blood flow and actually warming up my hands.你的意思是,如果我想象自己把手放在篝火旁或类似的做法,我就可以让身体里的血液流动,这样就可以暖手了。Exactly,at least thats the idea Its been tested on a handful of people with sleep disorders andtheres some evidence that it actually works.一点儿没错,至少这种想法已经在少数失眠的人身上做过测试,并且也有一些据明这种做法是有用的。 /201410/335442

  Heather, when plants convert light into energy to help them grow its called photosynthesis.希瑟 植物把光转换成能量 来帮助它们生长 这叫做光合作用But what is a photo of yourself taken by yourself called?但把自己给自己拍的照片叫做什么呢Oh! Er... A Selfie!Some of the tallest trees can be found in Northern California.哦 是 自拍 北加利福尼亚州生存着世界上最高的树If youre in Starbucks, whats bigger,an Ariana Grande or an Ariana Venti?假如你在星巴克 以下哪个更大 爱莉安娜·格兰德还是爱莉安娜·温迪Venti... is it? Yes, that is correct.超大杯 是吗 是的 答对了Melanie, eating lots of jelly donuts makes your waistline grow.梅拉妮 吃许多果冻甜甜圈会让你的腰围变大Name a celebrity with the last name Berry.Halle Berry.That is right! Halle Berry.请举出一个姓贝瑞的名人 哈莉·贝瑞 答对了 哈莉·贝瑞Heather, weve watched Justin Bieber grow up before our eyes.希瑟 我们是看着贾斯汀·比伯长大的If he was born in 1994, how old is he now?假如他是1994年出生的 他现在几岁了呢Oh, er... Just a minute. He is 21. Yes, he is!哦 等一下 他现在21岁了 对 他是的Nicole, Heather has an enthusiasm for all three of you.妮可 希瑟对你们仨都很热情Alan Thicke starred on Growing Pains son made a music 主演过;成长的烦恼;的艾伦·锡克的儿子拍了一部MVthat was full of naked ladies, what was the song?Blurred lines? Thats right.里面有好多裸体的女人 这首歌是什么 模糊界限 答对了 /201601/420841

  

  

  The Centers for Disease Control released the ed States death rate for 2015, and its the first time the death rate has increased in a decade. 美国疾病控制中心发布2015年美国死亡率,十年来首次出现上升。The CDC indicated that while it was too soon to find an official cause for the increase, 疾病预防控制中心表示,虽然还不能尽快找到上升的官方原因,higher rates of suicide, problems with painkiller abuse, and higher rates of Alzheimers could be key factors in the higher rate. 但更高的自杀率、止痛药的滥用问题以及高比例的老年痴呆症可能是更高比率的关键因素。The number of people who died per 100,000 U.S. residents went from 723 in 2014 to 729 in 2015. 每十万美国居民的死亡人数从2014年的723人上升到2015年的729人。Further information about the statistic, including a breakdown on death rates by age, religious status, sex, and race will be available in a few months.有关统计的进一步信息,包括死亡率按年龄、宗教状况、性别和种族的分类将在几个月内公布。译文属。201606/447371

  If youre like many people, when you think of algae you picture the unsightly green film that forms on neglected swimming pools and fish tanks.如许多人一样,当你想到藻类的时候,你会在脑海中即刻闪现出在无人问津的游泳池和鱼池里表面覆盖着一层难看的绿膜的画面。Scientists, however, have made some discoveries that might change the way you think about this common plant.然而科学家的发现却可以改变你对这种普通植物的看法。Researchers are working on ways to use algae to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels to powercars, trucks, and even airplanes.研究人员正致力于如何利用藻类来减少我们对用化石燃料发动小车,卡车甚至飞机的依赖。Algae has attracted attention because it is simple and economicalto grow and carries fewer financial and environmental costs when compared to other alternatives.藻类会引起科学家们的注意是因为相对于其它可选择的燃料来说,种植藻类更简单,经济,并且花费的财政和环境成本较少。Algae needs only water to grow, and can use fresh water, salt water, marshlands, and evenwastewater for a habitat.只要有水藻类就可以存活,它可以在淡水,咸水,沼泽地,甚至污水中生长。The plants highly-adapted photosynthesis process allows it to thriveanywhere that abundant sunshine can be found.该植物高度适应的光合作用过程让其在任何阳光充足的地方都能茁壮成长。And even sunshine is optional for this versatile plant because scientists have discovered ways to grow algae in the dark using sugar as a food source.甚是阳光也只是一个可选择的条件,因为科学家们发现通过把糖作为食物来源也可以在黑暗中种植藻类。To use algae as a replacement for fossil fuels, oil is extracted from the plant and developed into abiofuel that can be burned in diesel engines.若用藻类代替化石燃料,油就会从植物中提取出来,并被加工为可以在柴油机中燃烧的生物燃料。The yield produced from the algae has proven fargreater than other biofuels currently being developed.藻类的产量大大高于目前正在开发的其他生物燃料。For example, soy produces an averageyield of fifty gallons of biofuel per acre per year.例如,大豆平均每年每英亩可生产五十加仑的生物燃料。Canola, another common alternative, producesroughly 130 gallons of biofuel per acre per year.菜籽,另一种常见的替代品,平均每年每英亩大约可生产130加仑。In contrast, scientists have found that algae can produce up to 4,000 gallons of biofuel per acre per year.与此相反,科学家们发现藻类平均每年每英亩可生产达4000加仑。In addition, because algae can be grown on water rather than land and without fertilizers, it may prove to be a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative to the biofuels in use today.此外,藻类可以在水中而不是陆地上生长,也不需要施肥。因此可以明目前在使用的生物燃料中它是更有效更环保的替代品。In the future, then, when you see algae you might think about more than just pond scum!未来,当你看到藻类的时候你或许想到的不仅仅是“池塘败类”。201409/332188

  

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