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When you burst out crying, you expect the bleary red eyes and the rivers of tears that stream down your cheeks. But on top of all that, your nose starts to run like a faucet. Why does this happen? What’s the connection between crying and a runny nose?当你放声大哭时,朦胧的红眼睛以及泉涌般的泪水沿着面颊滑落是预料之中的事。除此之外,你会开始流鼻涕。为什么会出现这种情况?哭和流鼻涕之间又有什么联系呢?Where Do Tears Come From?眼泪从何而来?Tears come from tear glands located just over the eye, behind the bone. As tears rinse down over your eye, they collect at the rims of your lower eyelids, where some may overflow and stream down your cheeks.眼泪是由位于眼骨后的泪腺分泌的。当泪水被分泌出,他们便贮藏在下眼睑边缘,一部分眼泪溢出眼睛沿脸颊流下。But that’s not the only escape route for overflowing tears. If you look very closely at the inside of your eyelid, right near your nose, you’ll see a tiny little hole. You might need to gently pull your eyelid down to see it, because it’s on the inner edge of the eyelid, resting against the eye.但那并不是眼泪流出来的唯一路径。如果你仔细观察眼睑内侧靠近鼻子的地方,你会看到一个极其微小的洞。你可能需要轻拉眼睑才能看到这个小洞,因为它位于靠近眼睛的眼睑内侧。River Tears泪流成河These little holes, on the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes, serve as drains and lead into canals that run through grooves in the bones of the face and eventually empty into the nose. Even when you’re not crying, some of the normal, everyday tears that moisten and clean your eyes drain out through this secret passageway into the nose, but it’s such a small amount that you don’t notice it.这些小洞位于双眼的上下眼睑,它们发挥着排水管的作用,引导泪水沿着脸骨的凹槽流下并最终流入鼻子。即使你不哭的时候,每天也会有一些正常产生的、用以湿润和清洁眼睛的眼泪通过这个秘密通道流到鼻子里,只不过它们数量太少你察觉不到而已。When the tears really start to gush, however, this unnoticeable trickle turns into a river. As the tears make their way down through the nose, they moisten and loosen other secretions on the way. And that’s when you reach for a tissue!当眼泪喷涌而出的时候,这些平时察觉不到的小泪滴便汇流成河。在泪水流入鼻子的同时,它们在沿途还起到湿润和疏松其它分泌物的作用,这时候,你就需要纸巾擦拭了。 /201305/237603

Life during the Blitz闪电战下的生活Death threats死亡威胁Love and literature in the time of bombs战乱中的爱与文学The Love-charmof Bombs: Restless Lives in the Second World War. By Lara Feigel.《战乱情迷》,Lara Feigel著。FEW histories of the British home front during the second world warreally capture the “mood, temper and climate”, lamented Elizabeth Bowen, a novelist who lived in London at the time. Deaths constant threat fuelled an apocalyptichedonism. The Blitz was grim, but glorious too, in its way. In addition, the experience left a distinct and enduring literary legacy, writes Lara Feigel,an academic at Kings College London, in her new book, “The Love-charm ofBombs”, which came out in Britain in February and is now being published in America.鲜有讲述二战期间英国大后方的故事能真正体现当时的“”心境、性情、风气”,当年生活在伦敦的小说家Elizabeth Bowen哀叹道。持续的死亡威胁燃起了享乐主义热潮。闪电战残酷无情,但另一方面,这也是场荣耀之战。此外,这次经历也带来了非同凡响不可磨灭的文化遗产,伦敦国王学院的学者Lara Feigel在她的新书《战乱情迷》中写道。该作品已于2月在英国面市,现于美国出版发行。A fast-livingwriting trio Bowen, Graham Greene and Henry Yorke are the main protagonists. They mucked in with the wareffort, but their Blitz was made unique by love affairs. The passions it aroused, and the sense of timelessness that ensued a “suspended present”, Ms Feigel calls it were fertile muses. “These writers,firefighting, ambulance-driving, patrolling the streets, were the successors of the soldier poets of the firstworld war,” the author argues in her introduction.三剑客 Bowen, Graham Greene 和Henry Yorke即是描写这段放纵生活的主要代表。他们分享各自在战时取得的成果,笔下的那些风流韵事也让他们的闪电战与众不同。被唤醒的热情以及时间的永恒性引发了一种 “现实静止”,Ms Feigel形容为 灵感的源泉。“这些作家,当过消防员,开过救护车,在街上巡逻,是一战时期士兵诗人的继任者”作者在引言中陈述道。Bomb-hit London was surely of a different order to the peerless carnage of Flanders fields, but the literary impact of the war, she convincingly shows, is comparable. Yorke was at his most prolific then. For the others the experience bore fruit more slowly. The Blitz would provide the setting for Bowens “The Heat of the Day”, and also for Greenes most passionate work, “The End of the Affair”.轰炸伦敦造成的伤亡虽没有血流成河的佛兰德战役惨烈,但战争带来的文学冲击,却不相上下,Feigel在书中有力地明了这点。Yorke当时文思泉涌,而其他作家的产量相对偏少。闪电战为Bowen的《炎日》,Greene最的作品《恋情的终结》提供了创作背景。Peace was a disappointment. The democratic spirit ebbed and life lost its intensity. Bowen, repelled by the Labour Partys 1945 electionvictory, retreated to Ireland with her sexless husband, but really she lived in a world of letters with a Canadian lover. Yorke, who would never be more than a “writers writers writer”, became a drunk. Greene found new love and increased fame, but like the others, Ms Feigel suggests, he would never again “value the present moment so whole heartedly”.和平令人沮丧。民主精神衰退,生活失去张力。1945年工党赢得选举,Bowen就此退出政治舞台,与她性冷淡的丈夫一同移居爱尔兰,但实际上她沉浸在与加拿大情人构筑起的情信世界。York,本可以超越“作家的作家的作家”,却成了酒鬼。Greene有了新欢,声名鹊起,但Feigel认为,就像其他人一样,他再也无法“全心全意地珍视当下”。This is a strikingly original book. It succeeds in itsambitious combination of group biography and literary criticism. But it is notflawless. Ms Feigel focuses too widely on obscure novelists,in particular a melancholy Austrian emigre, Hilde Spiel,while more illustrious contemporaries Virginia Woolf, Anthony Powell and EvelynWaugh haunt the background like ghosts at the feast. The authors are also tooily believed. Yorke called his fellow firefighters “absolute heroes”, butWaugh, a marine, doubted their courage. Did Waugh have a point? The questiongoes unasked.这是本非常具有创建性的作品。它成功地完成了集体传记与文学的宏伟结合。但也并非十全十美。Feigel过于专注冷门小说家,特别是忧郁的奥地利移民Hilde Spiel,而那些杰出的同代作家 Virginia Woolf, Anthony Powell和Evelyn Waugh 却像鬼魂般游离在盛宴之下。同时,作者对一些史料过于轻信。Yorke称他的消防伙伴“绝对是英雄人物”,但身为海军的Waugh却怀疑他们的勇气。Waugh的话是否中肯,我们也不得而知。But these are minor complaints. For the ageing Rose Macaulay, another British novelist of the period, the war was shattering. Shelost a secret lover to cancer, and his letters to a bomb. The need to conceal the mourning deepened the grief. “The Love-charm of Bombs” excels in demonstrating that these years of bleakness and loss were also, for a fortunate few, a time of extraordinary excitement and literary inspiration.但这些都是小瑕疵。对于另一位英国小说家,当时年迈的Rose Macaulay来说,战争粉碎了一切。她失去了身患癌症的秘密情人,炸弹摧毁了他们所有的情信。她必须隐藏这份悲伤,这反而加深了心中的痛楚。《战乱情迷》极力明了那个不断失去的阴郁年代也是荡漾,充满文学启发的时代,多么难能可贵。 /201404/287441

Science and technology科学技术Artificial meat人造肉Hamburger junction人造汉堡的诞生Muscle grown in factories could soon be appearing in a supermarket near you工厂培养的肉可能很快出现在你周围的超市了A QUARTER of a million euros is rather a lot to pay for a hamburger,25万欧元去买一个汉堡包确实是相当贵,but that will be the cost of the patty which Mark Post proposes to stick in a bun this October.但这只是今年十月Mark Post计划内夹在面包片中一块肉饼的价格。The burger in question—not so much a quarter-pounder as a quarter-million-pounder—will be so expensive because it will be made from meat that has been grown from scratch in a laboratory.那关于这个汉堡—就不仅仅是一个0.25磅重的汉堡了,相当于250000磅汉堡的价格—这么贵是因为它所用的肉是从实验室里培养出来的。Dr Post, who works at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands, belongs to a group of people who hope to disrupt one of mankinds oldest industries—animal husbandry.Post士任职于荷兰霍芬大学,现从属于一个课题组,该课题组致力于中止人类最古老的行业之一—畜牧业。In fact, they wish not so much to disrupt it as to destroy it.实际上,他们不仅仅希望去中止它而是去终结该产业。Raising animals is a resource-intensive process.饲养动物就是一个资源富集的过程。About 30% of the worlds ice-free land is used for it.世界上大约30%的非冰覆陆地都在进行此过程。Yet of the nutrients in the plants these animals eat, only around 15% is turned into meat.而动物吃掉植物后,只能把其中15%的营养变成肉。As the human population grows, and grows richer, demand for meat is increasing.当人口不断增长时,对肉类需求也在增加。Dr Post hopes to satisfy at least part of that demand by making the stuff in factories, in a way that converts about 50% of the nutrients into something people can eat.Post士希望通过把50%的营养转换成可食用肉的方法,使工厂生产的肉至少能满足人们的部分需求。For now, that something is not exactly fillet steak.现在那些东西未必是正宗的菲力牛排了。Dr Posts cultures, grown from stem cells, are sheets 3cm long, 1.5cm wide and half a millimetre deep.士Post的做法是,把干细胞培养于3厘米长,1.5厘米宽,0.5毫米深的基槽内。To make the worlds most expensive hamburger 3,000 of them will be needed.所以需要3000个培养基才能做成这个世界最贵的汉堡包。The stem cells themselves are extracted from cattle muscle and then multiplied a millionfold before they are put in Petri dishes and allowed to turn into muscle cells.那些干细胞从牛肌肉中提取,在放入培养皿和变成肌细胞之前,干细胞还要经过上百万次繁殖。When they have done so, they are encouraged to exercise and build up their strength by being given their own gym equipment.完成这个阶段后,它们还要经过锻炼来增加自己的强度,也就是为它们提供一些健身器材。The fatty cells of adipose tissue, needed for juiciness, are grown separately and then combined with the muscle cells before the whole thing is cooked.那些脂肪组织的脂肪细胞需要具有多汁性,则要进行单独培养,在整个被烹调之前,还要把它和肌肉组织结合在一起。In theory, one cow could thus supply as many hamburgers as a million slaughtered animals can today.理论上,以这种方式一头牛能提供的汉堡量比得上当今屠宰一百万头牛的产量。Producing meat in Petri dishes is not commercially viable,在培养皿中生产肉不具有商业可行性,but Dr Post hopes to scale things up.但Post士希望把规模成倍扩大。first by growing the cells on small spheres floating in tanks and ultimately by using scaffolds made of biodegradable polymer tubes,首先把细胞培养在大容里面的球形漂浮物上,最后再使用可降解聚合物试管做承,which would both add the third dimension needed for a juicy steak and provide a way of delivering nutrients and oxygen to the steaks interior.这样既能增加多汁牛肉所需的视觉真实感,还能提供传递营养和氧气到牛肉内部的通路。The nutrients themselves could come from conventional crops,那些营养物质可以从普通农作物中获取,but Dr Post also has plans to use algae, which grow faster than vascular plants, to provide the necessary amino acids, sugars and fats.但Post士计划使用藻类,因为它们比那些维管植物长的要快,以此提供所需的氨基酸、糖类和脂肪。The upshot would be a world with fewer stock animals.这样最终结果将是世界再也不必饲养那么多动物,Not only would that liberate land, it would reduce greenhouse-gas emissions.不仅可以解放土地,还可以减少温室气体的排放。Moreover, you do not even have to kill a cow to obtain stem cells from it. A biopsy will do.此外,你也不必再为获得干细胞而杀掉一头牛—活体切片法便可做到。That might mean that vegetarians would be able to enjoy meat, too.这意味着素食主义者也可以享用肉类了。点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245826

Indias Hindu nationalists:印度的印度教民族主义者:Men in shorts穿短裤的人们The election over, Narendra Modi may drop the Hindu right选举结束,纳伦德拉莫迪或许将限制印度教权力。Not physical jerks这可不是单纯的体操。POLITICAL pundits have spent much of the past week debating exit polls, released just after the final day of voting on May 12th. The polls pointed, more or less, to a single outcome: the Bharatiya Janata Party will wallop the incumbent party, Congress, and, led by Narendra Modi, will form the next government. Investors pushed the stockmarket to a record high. But details matter, such as whether Mr Modi can rely on a narrow coalition or will need a broad one. Here, the pollsters cannot be relied upon. The official results are due on May 16th, after The Economist goes to press.5月12日是印度大选投票的最后一天,投票结束后不久,政府即公布了一份票站民意调查。在过去的一周中,政治专家们纷纷就这一调查结果展开辩论。调查或多或少地指向了同一个结果:纳伦德拉.莫迪领导的印度人民党将在选举中击溃现任执政党—国大党,组建下届政府。投资者们借机推动股市达到了创纪录的新高。但是一些细节将对最后的结果产生重大影响,例如莫迪先生是否可以依赖这一狭隘的联盟或是去寻求一个更广泛的合作。民意调查并不可靠,官方的结果将会在5月16日即本刊付梓后公布。A second debate concerned the clout of the Hindu right. Since he was a boy, Mr Modi has been an activist member in the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, formed in 1925 as a pro-Hindu social movement. It began with charitable aims but always carried quasi-military overtones as men in brown shorts performed dawn callisthenics. These days the RSS is rebranding itself as a more youthful, right-leaning, nationalist organisation, with rugby and volleyball on offer as alternatives to physical jerks.第二个辩论则有关于印度教权力的影响。从童年起,莫迪先生就一直是印度国民志愿务团的活跃成员。印度国民志愿务团成立于1925年,持印度教社会化运动。它是为了慈善的目的而成立,但是成员们每天早晨穿着棕色短裤演练体操却使它染上了一丝准军事化的色。这些天来,国民志愿务团致力于重新标榜自己为一个更加年轻的,右倾的民族主义组织,并且提供橄榄球和排球作为一个替代体操活动的选择。Throughout the election campaign, the RSS supplied volunteers for the BJP. The organisations sway within the party remains strong. Mr Modi became party leader in 2013 when the RSS chose to back him. Observers see an effort to expand the RSSs “majoritarian” appeal, with less talk of Hindu identity and more about national strength. Smooth-tongued spokesmen downplay a once-core assertion of the RSS: that to be Indian was to be Hindu.在整个的竞选活动中,RSS一直为印度人民党提供志愿者。该组织在人民党内保持着巨大的影响力。2013年,在RSS的持下,莫迪先生成为了印度人民党的领袖。观察家们将其视作印度国民志愿务团扩大其“多数人统治”诉求的努力,只是现在他们更少地谈及印度教的身份,转而更多地从国家力量的出发。圆滑的发言人如今则对务团曾经核心的主张—“印度人就得是印度教徒”轻描淡写。Yet Mr Modis rise brings questions about the role of the RSS and the wider Sangh Parivar, or family of Hindu nationalist outfits. Some have high expectations. About 2,000 volunteers turned out to help Mr Modi in Varanasi alone. On May 12th members of the RSSs student wing cheered Mr Modi as “one of us ”, claiming he would bring relief on issues dear to them. These include calls for a temple to be built at the site of a demolished mosque in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh; for Muslim-majority Kashmir to lose its special status under the Indian constitution; and for the abolition of a separate marriage code for Muslims. Not for these people discussions about economic policies.然而,莫迪先生的就职带来了有关RSS与更广泛的“联合家庭”—印度教民族主义者组织联合间的角色问题。有些人抱着很高的期待。仅在瓦拉纳西市就有约2000名志愿者帮助莫迪先生的竞选。5月12日,加入国民志愿务团的学生们便欢呼莫迪先生是“我们的一员”,宣称他将会对有利于他们的事情(对那些穆斯林和无宗教主义者则充满忧虑)带来解决办法。这些就包括呼吁在北方邦阿约提亚市的一处废旧的清真寺旧址上修建一座寺庙;呼吁取消穆斯林人口占多数的克什米尔地区在印度宪法下的特殊地位;呼吁废除专为穆斯林制定的单独的婚姻法。以及不要为这些人讨论经济政策。A senior RSS organiser in Varanasi talks of Mr Modi restoring pride in “what the nation lost in the last 1,000 years, in the sons of the nation, the Hindus who originally belonged to this country”. Only once before, at the defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977, has the RSS thrown itself so heavily into party politics. Just as it is helping Mr Modis cause, so he is helping the RSS, according to one of its spokesmen in Delhi. With more effective recruiting, especially online, 10,000 new members are said to be signing up each month, including at universities and among employees at the countrys booming IT firms.RSS的一位高级官员在瓦拉纳西市谈及莫迪先生重建了印度人的骄傲,这份骄傲是“在过去的1000年中这个国家所丢失了的事物中,在这个国家的子孙间,在那些从最开始就属于这片土地的印度教徒身上”。之前只有在1977年英迪拉.甘地失败的那一次竞选中,RSS才如此激烈地参与到过党派政治中。据德里的一位发言人称,RSS在帮助莫迪先生的事业,他也在帮助RSS。得益于更有效率的招募行动,尤其是在网络上的,据说每个月都有10,000名新成员加入,而其中就包含着在校大学生和这个国家冉冉升起的IT行业的雇员们。If Mr Modi becomes prime minister, members of the broad Sangh Parivar family say they expect a more forceful approach to Pakistan and China. School textbooks could be reworked to show history “in the right way”, as one puts it, for example by telling how Maratha kings triumphed over Muslim armies.如果莫迪先生当选为总理,广大的“联合家庭”成员们期待着对巴基斯坦和中国采取更为强硬的措施。学校的教科书也会被重新编写,例如通过描述马拉地国王如何打败穆斯林军队这种所谓的“正确的方式”展现历史,。Yet Mr Modis iness for collaboration may prove passing. It is true that on May 10th he spent two hours with the RSSs leader, Mohan Bhagwat, reportedly to assess the national campaign and potential ruling coalitions. But with voting over, the BJP will not need its armies of street volunteers. And Hindu nationalists may recall how in Mr Modis early years of running the state of Gujarat, he mostly kept the RSS at arms length, worried that a rival power might arise. Widening his appeal to all Indians may mean turning his back on the more divisive outfits to which he has been close.然而莫迪先生的合作意愿可能只是短暂的。5月10日,他与RSS的领导人莫汉.巴格瓦特会谈了两个小时,据报道是在评估全国运动以及潜在的执政联盟。但是当投票结束后,印度人民党将不再需要街头的志愿者军队。那时印度教民族主义者或许会记起莫迪先生早年在古吉拉特邦执政时是如何做的——大多数时候他都会与RSS保持距离 ,以避免反对力量的出现。迎合更广大的印度人民意味着莫迪先生会背离这一引起纠纷的组织,尽管他一直同印度国民务团关系亲密。 201405/302140


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